Undocumented Matlab http://undocumentedmatlab.com Charting Matlab's unsupported hidden underbelly Thu, 05 Jan 2017 17:22:57 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.4.1 Quirks with parfor vs. forhttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/quirks-with-parfor-vs-for http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/quirks-with-parfor-vs-for#comments Thu, 05 Jan 2017 17:15:48 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6821
 
Related posts:
  1. A few parfor tips The parfor (parallel for) loops can be made faster using a few simple tips. ...
  2. Quirks with compiled Matlab DLLs Several quirks with Matlab-compiled DLLs are discussed and workarounds suggested. ...
  3. Preallocation performance Preallocation is a standard Matlab speedup technique. Still, it has several undocumented aspects. ...
  4. Array resizing performance Several alternatives are explored for dynamic array growth performance in Matlab loops. ...
 
]]>
A few months ago, I discussed several tips regarding Matlab’s parfor command, which is used by the Parallel Computing Toolbox (PCT) for parallelizing loops. Today I wish to extend that post with some unexplained oddities when using parfor, compared to a standard for loop.

Data serialization quirks

Dimitri Shvorob may not appear at first glance to be a prolific contributor on Matlab Central, but from the little he has posted over the years I regard him to be a Matlab power-user. So when Dimitri reports something, I take it seriously. Such was the case several months ago, when he contacted me regarding very odd behavior that he saw in his code: the for loop worked well, but the parfor version returned different (incorrect) results. Eventually, Dimitry traced the problem to something originally reported by Dan Austin on his Fluffy Nuke It blog.

The core issue is that if we have a class object that is used within a for loop, Matlab can access the object directly in memory. But with a parfor loop, the object needs to be serialized in order to be sent over to the parallel workers, and deserialized within each worker. If this serialization/deserialization process involves internal class methods, the workers might see a different version of the class object than the one seen in the serial for loop. This could happen, for example, if the serialization/deserialization method croaks on an error, or depends on some dynamic (or random) conditions to create data.

In other words, when we use data objects in a parfor loop, the data object is not necessarily sent “as-is”: additional processing may be involved under the hood that modify the data in a way that may be invisible to the user (or the loop code), resulting in different processing results of the parallel (parfor) vs. serial (for) loops.

For additional aspects of Matlab serialization/deserialization, see my article from 2 years ago (and its interesting feedback comments).

Data precision quirks

The following section was contributed by guest blogger Lior Perlmuter-Shoshany, head algorithmician at a private equity fund.

In my work, I had to work with matrixes in the order of 109 cells. To reduce the memory footprint (and hopefully also improve performance), I decided to work with data of type single instead of Matlab’s default double. Furthermore, in order to speed up the calculation I use parfor rather than for in the main calculation. In the end of the run I am running a mini for-loop to see the best results.

What I discovered to my surprise is that the results from the parfor and for loop variants is not the same!

The following simplified code snippet illustrate the problem by calculating a simple standard-deviation (std) over the same data, in both single– and double-precision. Note that the loops are ran with only a single iteration, to illustrate the fact that the problem is with the parallelization mechanism (probably the serialization/deserialization parts once again), not with the distribution of iterations among the workers.

clear
rng('shuffle','twister');
 
% Prepare the data in both double and single precision
arr_double = rand(1,100000000);
arr_single = single(arr_double);
 
% No loop - direct computation
std_single0 = std(arr_single);
std_double0 = std(arr_double);
 
% Loop #1 - serial for loop
std_single = 0;
std_double = 0;
for i=1
    std_single(i) = std(arr_single);
    std_double(i) = std(arr_double);
end
 
% Loop #2 - parallel parfor loop
par_std_single = 0;
par_std_double = 0;
parfor i=1
    par_std_single(i) = std(arr_single);
    par_std_double(i) = std(arr_double);
end
 
% Compare results of for loop vs. non-looped computation
isForSingleOk = isequal(std_single, std_single0)
isForDoubleOk = isequal(std_double, std_double0)
 
% Compare results of single-precision data (for vs. parfor)
isParforSingleOk = isequal(std_single, par_std_single)
parforSingleAccuracy = std_single / par_std_single
 
% Compare results of double-precision data (for vs. parfor)
isParforDoubleOk = isequal(std_double, par_std_double)
parforDoubleAccuracy = std_double / par_std_double

Output example :

isForSingleOk = 
    1                   % <= true (of course!)
isForDoubleOk =
    1                   % <= true (of course!)
 
isParforSingleOk =
    0                   % <= false (odd!)
parforSingleAccuracy =
    0.73895227413361    % <= single-precision results are radically different in parfor vs. for
 
isParforDoubleOk =
    0                   % <= false (odd!)
parforDoubleAccuracy =
    1.00000000000021    % <= double-precision results are almost [but not exactly] the same in parfor vs. for

From my testing, the larger the data array, the bigger the difference is between the results of single-precision data when running in for vs. parfor.

In other words, my experience has been that if you have a huge data matrix, it’s better to parallelize it in double-precision if you wish to get [nearly] accurate results. But even so, I find it deeply disconcerting that the results are not exactly identical (at least on R2015a-R2016b on which I tested) even for the native double-precision .

Hmmm… bug?

Upcoming travels – Zürich & Geneva

I will shortly be traveling to clients in Zürich and Geneva, Switzerland. If you are in the area and wish to meet me to discuss how I could bring value to your work with some advanced Matlab consulting or training, then please email me (altmany at gmail):

  • Zürich: January 15-17
  • Geneva: January 18-21

Happy new year everybody!

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/quirks-with-parfor-vs-for/feed 6
Checking status of warning messages in MEXhttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/checking-status-of-warning-messages-in-mex http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/checking-status-of-warning-messages-in-mex#respond Wed, 21 Dec 2016 15:24:06 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6797
 
Related posts:
  1. Better MEX error messages The default clunky and release-incompatible MEX error messages can be improved using a simple hack. ...
  2. Setting status-bar text The Matlab desktop and figure windows have a usable statusbar which can only be set using undocumented methods. This post shows how to set the status-bar text....
  3. Setting status-bar components Matlab status-bars are Java containers in which we can add GUI controls such as progress-bars, not just simple text labels...
  4. Sending email/text messages from Matlab Sending emails and SMS (text) messages from Matlab is easy, once you know a few quirks....
 
]]>
Once again I would like to welcome guest blogger Pavel Holoborodko, the developer of the Advanpix Multiprecision Computing Toolbox. Pavel has already posted here as a guest blogger about undocumented Matlab MEX functions. Today he will discuss another little-known aspect of advanced MEX programming with Matlab, a repost of an article that was originally posted on his own blog. Happy holidays everybody!

Matlab allows flexible adjustment of visibility of warning messages. Some, or even all, messages can be disabled from showing on the screen by warning command.

The little known fact is that status of some warnings may be used to change the execution path in algorithms. For example, if warning 'Matlab:nearlySingularMatrix' is disabled, then the linear system solver (mldivide operator) might skip estimation of reciprocal condition number which is used exactly for the purpose of detection of nearly singular matrices. If the trick is used, it allows 20%-50% boost in solver performance, since rcond estimation is a time consuming process.

Therefore it is important to be able to retrieve status of warnings in Matlab. Especially in MEX libraries targeted for improved performance. Unfortunately Matlab provides no simple way to check status of warning message from MEX module.

Today’s article outlines two workarounds for the issue:

  1. Using mexCallMATLABWithTrap (documented)
  2. Using utGetWarningStatus (undocumented)

Using mexCallMATLABWithTrap (documented)

The first idea is to use documented mexCallMATLABWithTrap function to execute warning(‘query’,…) command using Matlab’s interpreter and then parse the returned result:

bool mxIsWarningEnabled(const char* warningId)
{
    bool enabled = true;
 
    if (NULL != warningId)
    {
        mxArray *mxCommandResponse = NULL, *mxException = NULL;
        mxArray *args[2];
 
        /* warning('query', warningId); */
        args[0] = mxCreateString("query");
        args[1] = mxCreateString(warningId);
        mxException = mexCallMATLABWithTrap(1,&mxCommandResponse,2,args,"warning");
        if (NULL == mxException && NULL != mxCommandResponse)
        {
            if (mxIsStruct(mxCommandResponse))
            {
                const mxArray* state_field = mxGetField(mxCommandResponse, 0, "state");
                if (mxIsChar(state_field))
                {
                    char state_value[8] = {0};
                    enabled = (0 == mxGetString(state_field, state_value, 8)) &&
                              (0 == strcmp(state_value,"on"));
                }
            }
            mxDestroyArray(mxCommandResponse);
        }
        else
        {
            /* 'warning' returned with error */
            mxDestroyArray(mxException);
        }
        mxDestroyArray(args[0]);
        mxDestroyArray(args[1]);
    }
    return enabled;
}

This approach is slow, but works fine in most standard situations. See the bottom of this post for a usage example.

However, this approach has an important drawback – we should be careful with recursive calls to the Matlab interpreter (Matlab -> MEX -> Matlab) and with handling Matlab errors in MEX. It is safe only if we use identical standard libraries and compiler to build both MEX and Matlab.

In other cases, for example when MEX is targeted to work with different versions of Matlab, or was built with a different standard library and compiler, etc. – cross boundary handling of errors (which are just C++ exceptions) might lead to unpredictable results, most likely segfaults.

Using utGetWarningStatus (undocumented)

To avoid all the overhead of calling Matlab interpreter and unsafe error handling, we can use some undocumented internal Matlab functions:

/* Link with libut library to pick-up undocumented functions: */
extern "C" void* utGetWarningManagerContext(void);
extern "C" bool  utIsValidMessageIdentifier(const char *warningId);
extern "C" bool  utGetWarningStatus(void* context, const char *warningId);
 
/* 
   Returns true if warning with warningId enabled 
   Matlab versions supported/tested: R2008b - R2016b
*/
bool mxIsWarningEnabled(const char *warningId)
{
    bool enabled = true;
 
    if (NULL != warningId && utIsValidMessageIdentifier(warningId))
    {
        void* context = utGetWarningManagerContext();
        enabled = (NULL != context) && utGetWarningStatus(context, warningId);
    }
    return enabled;
}

Now the code is clean, fast and safe – we bypass the interpreter and work directly with Matlab kernel. All the undocumented functions involved are present in Matlab for at least 10 years and do simple logical checks under the hood.

The standard function mexWarnMsgIdAndTxt uses similar code to check if it should display the warning or just suppress it, and that code remains unchanged since R2008b. This is a good indication of code stability and makes us believe that it will not be changed in future versions of Matlab.

For both workarounds, usage is simple:

if (mxIsWarningEnabled("Matlab:nearlySingularMatrix"))
{
   /* compute rcond */
}
else
{
   /* do something else */
}
]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/checking-status-of-warning-messages-in-mex/feed 0
Password & spinner controls in Matlab GUIhttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/password-and-spinner-controls-in-matlab-gui http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/password-and-spinner-controls-in-matlab-gui#comments Wed, 14 Dec 2016 17:28:09 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6775
 
Related posts:
  1. Using spinners in Matlab GUI Spinner controls can easily be added to Matlab GUI. This article explains how. ...
  2. Sliders in Matlab GUI Professional-looking slider controls can easily be integrated in Matlab GUI. ...
  3. Matlab and the Event Dispatch Thread (EDT) The Java Swing Event Dispatch Thread (EDT) is very important for Matlab GUI timings. This article explains the potential pitfalls and their avoidance using undocumented Matlab functionality....
  4. Types of undocumented Matlab aspects This article lists the different types of undocumented/unsupported/hidden aspects in Matlab...
 
]]>
I often include configuration panels in my programs, to enable the user to configure various program aspects, such as which emails should automatically be sent by the program to alert when certain conditions occur. Last week I presented such a configuration panel, which is mainly composed of standard documented Matlab controls (sub-panels, uitables and uicontrols). As promised, today’s post will discuss two undocumented controls that are often useful in similar configuration panels (not necessarily for emails): password fields and spinners.

Matlab GUI configuration panel including password and spinner controls (click to zoom-in)
Matlab GUI configuration panel including password and spinner controls (click to zoom-in)

Password fields are basically editboxes that hide the typed text with some generic echo character (such as * or a bullet); spinners are editboxes that only enable typing certain preconfigured values (e.g., numbers in a certain range). Both controls are part of the standard Java Swing package, on which the current (non-web-based) Matlab GUIs relies. In both cases, we can use the javacomponent function to place the built-in Swing component in our Matlab GUI.

Password field

The relevant Java Swing control for password fields is javax.swing.JPasswordField. JPasswordField is basically an editbox that hides any typed key with a * or bullet character.

Here’s a basic code snippet showing how to display a simple password field:

jPasswordField = javax.swing.JPasswordField('defaultPassword');  % default password arg is optional
jPasswordField = javaObjectEDT(jPasswordField);  % javaObjectEDT is optional but recommended to avoid timing-related GUI issues
jhPasswordField = javacomponent(jPasswordField, [10,10,70,20], gcf);

Password control

Password control

We can set/get the password string programmatically via the Text property; the displayed (echo) character can be set/get using the EchoChar property.

To attach a data-change callback, set jhPasswordField’s ActionPerformedCallback property.

Spinner control

detailed post on using spinners in Matlab GUI

The relevant Java Swing control for spinners is javax.swing.JSpinner. JSpinner is basically an editbox with two tiny adjacent up/down buttons that visually emulate a small round spinning knob. Spinners are similar in functionality to a combo-box (a.k.a. drop-down or pop-up menu), where a user can switch between several pre-selected values. They are often used when the list of possible values is too large to display in a combo-box menu. Like combo-boxes, spinners too can be editable (meaning that the user can type a value in the editbox) or not (the user can only “spin” the value using the up/down buttons).

JSpinner uses an internal data model. The default model is SpinnerNumberModel, which defines a min/max value (unlimited=[] by default) and step-size (1 by default). Additional predefined models are SpinnerListModel (which accepts a cell array of possible string values) and SpinnerDateModel (which defines a date range and step unit).

Here’s a basic code snippet showing how to display a simple numeric spinner for numbers between 20 and 35, with an initial value of 24 and increments of 0.1:

jModel = javax.swing.SpinnerNumberModel(24,20,35,0.1);
jSpinner = javax.swing.JSpinner(jModel);
jSpinner = javaObjectEDT(jSpinner);  % javaObjectEDT is optional but recommended to avoid timing-related GUI issues
jhSpinner = javacomponent(jSpinner, [10,10,70,20], gcf);

The spinner value can be set using the edit-box or by clicking on one of the tiny arrow buttons, or programmatically by setting the Value property. The spinner object also has related read-only properties NextValue and PreviousValue. The spinner’s model object has the corresponding Value (settable), NextValue (read-only) and PreviousValue (read-only) properties. In addition, the various models have specific properties. For example, SpinnerNumberModel has the settable Maximum, Minimum and StepSize properties.

To attach a data-change callback, set jhSpinner’s StateChangedCallback property.

I have created a small Matlab demo, SpinnerDemo, which demonstrates usage of JSpinner in Matlab figures. Each of the three predefined models (number, list, and date) is presented, and the spinner values are inter-connected via their callbacks. The Matlab code is modeled after the Java code that is used to document JSpinner in the official Java documentation. Readers are welcome to download this demo from the Matlab File Exchange and reuse its source code.

Matlab SpinnerDemo

Matlab SpinnerDemo

The nice thing about spinners is that you can set a custom display format without affecting the underlying data model. For example, the following code snippet update the spinner’s display format without affecting its underlying numeric data model:

formatStr = '$ #,##0.0 Bn';
jEditor = javaObject('javax.swing.JSpinner$NumberEditor', jhSpinner, formatStr);
jhSpinner.setEditor(jEditor);

Formatted spinner control

Formatted spinner control

For more information, refer to my detailed post on using spinners in Matlab GUI.

Caveat emptor

MathWorks’ new web-based GUI paradigm will most probably not directly support the Java components presented in today’s post, or more specifically the javacomponent function that enables placing them in Matlab GUIs. The new web-based GUI-building application (AppDesigner, aka AD) does contain a spinner, although it is [currently] limited to displaying numeric values (not dates/lists as in my SpinnerDemo). Password fields are not currently supported by AppDesigner at all, and it is unknown whether they will ever be.

All this means that users of Java controls who wish to transition to the new web-based GUIs will need to develop programmatic workarounds, that would presumably appear and behave less professional. It’s a tradeoff: AppDesigner does include features that improve GUI usability, not to mention the presumed future ability to post Matlab GUIs online (hopefully without requiring a monstrous Matlab Production Server license/installation).

In the past, MathWorks has posted a dedicated webpage to solicit user feedback on how they are using the figure’s JavaFrame property. MathWorks will presumably prepare a similar webpage to solicit user feedback on uses of the javacomponent function, so they could add the top items to AppDesigner, making the transition to web-based GUIs less painful. When such a survey page becomes live, I will post about it on this website so that you could tell MathWorks about your specific use-cases and help them prioritize their R&D efforts.

In any case, regardless of whether the functionality eventually makes it into AppDesigner, my hope is that when the time comes MathWorks will not pull the plug from non-web GUIs, and will still enable running them on desktops for backward compatibility (“legacy mode”). Users of existing GUIs will then not need to choose between upgrading their Matlab (and redeveloping their GUI as a web-based app) and running their existing programs. Instead, users will face the much less painful choice between keeping the existing Java-based programs and developing a web-based variant at some later time, separate from the choice of whether or not to upgrade Matlab. The increased revenue from license upgrades and SMS (maintenance plan) renewals might well offset the R&D effort that would be needed to keep supporting the old Java-based figures. The traumatic* release of HG2 in R2014b, where a less-than-perfect version was released with no legacy mode, resulting in significant user backlash/disappointment, is hopefully still fresh in the memory of decision makers and would hopefully not be repeated.

*well, traumatic for some at least. I really don’t wish to make this a debate on HG2’s release; I’d rather focus on making the transition to web-based GUIs as seamless as possible.

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/password-and-spinner-controls-in-matlab-gui/feed 4
Sending email/text messages from Matlabhttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/sending-email-text-messages-from-matlab http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/sending-email-text-messages-from-matlab#respond Wed, 07 Dec 2016 21:24:03 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6765
 
Related posts:
  1. Setting system tray popup messages System-tray icons and messages can be programmatically set and controlled from within Matlab, using new functionality available since R2007b....
  2. Setting status-bar text The Matlab desktop and figure windows have a usable statusbar which can only be set using undocumented methods. This post shows how to set the status-bar text....
  3. Icon images & text in Matlab uicontrols HTML can be used to add image icons to Matlab listbox and popup (drop-down) controls. ...
  4. Checking status of warning messages in MEX Undocumented Mex functions can be used to extract the state of Matlab warnings in run-time. ...
 
]]>
In this day and age, applications are expected to communicate with users by sending email/text messages to alert them about applicative events (“IBM stock purchased @$99.99” or “House is on fire!”). Matlab has included the sendmail function to handle this for many years. Unfortunately, sendmail requires some tweaking to be useful on all but the most basic/insecure mail servers. Today’s post will hopefully fill the missing gaps.

None of the information I’ll present today is really new – it was all there already if you just knew what to search for online. But hopefully today’s post will concentrate all these loose ends in a single place, so it may have some value:

Using a secure mail server

All modern mail servers use end-to-end TLS/SSL encryption. The sendmail function needs extra configuration to handle such connections, since it is configured for a non-encrypted connection by default. Here’s the code that does this for gmail, using SMTP server smtp.gmail.com and default port #465 (for other SMTP servers, see here):

setpref('Internet', 'SMTP_Server',   'smtp.gmail.com');
setpref('Internet', 'SMTP_Username', username);
setpref('Internet', 'SMTP_Password', password);
 
props = java.lang.System.getProperties;
props.setProperty('mail.smtp.auth',                'true');  % Note: 'true' as a string, not a logical value!
props.setProperty('mail.smtp.starttls.enable',     'true');  % Note: 'true' as a string, not a logical value!
props.setProperty('mail.smtp.socketFactory.port',  '465');   % Note: '465'  as a string, not a numeric value!
props.setProperty('mail.smtp.socketFactory.class', 'javax.net.ssl.SSLSocketFactory');
 
sendmail(recipient, title, body, attachments);  % e.g., sendmail('recipient@gmail.com', 'Hello world', 'What a nice day!', 'C:\images\sun.jpg')

All this is not enough to enable Matlab to connect to gmail’s SMTP servers. In addition, we need to set the Google account to allow access from “less secure apps” (details, direct link). Without this, Google will not allow Matlab to relay emails. Other mail servers may require similar server-side account configurations to enable Matlab’s access.

Note: This code snippet uses a bit of Java as you can see. Under the hood, all networking code in Matlab relies on Java, and sendmail is no exception. For some reason that I don’t fully understand, MathWorks chose to label the feature of using sendmail with secure mail servers as a feature that relies on “undocumented commands” and is therefore not listed in sendmail‘s documentation. Considering the fact that all modern mail servers are secure, this seems to make sendmail rather useless without the undocumented extension. I assume that TMW are well aware of this, which is the reason they posted a partial documentation in the form of an official tech-support answer. I hope that one day MathWorks will incorporate it into sendmail as optional input args, so that using sendmail with secure servers would become fully documented and officially supported.

Emailing multiple recipients

To specify multiple email recipients, it is not enough to set sendmail‘s recipient input arg to a string with , or ; delimiters. Instead, we need to provide a cell array of individual recipient strings. For example:

sendmail({'recipient1@gmail.com','recipient2@gmail.com'}, 'Hello world', 'What a nice day!')

Note: this feature is actually fully documented in sendmail‘s doc-page, but for some reason I see that some users are not aware of it (to which it might be said: RTFM!).

Sending text messages

With modern smartphones, text (SMS) messages have become rather outdated, as most users get push notifications of incoming emails. Still, for some users text messages may still be a useful. To send such messages, all we need is to determine our mobile carrier’s email gateway for SMS messages, and send a simple text message to that email address. For example, to send a text message to T-Mobile number 123-456-7890 in the US, simply email the message to 1234567890@tmomail.net (details).

Ke Feng posted a nice Matlab File Exchange utility that wraps this messaging for a wide variety of US carriers.

User configuration panel

Many GUI programs contain configuration panels/tabs/windows. Enabling the user to set up their own email provider is a typical use-case for such a configuration. Naturally, you’d want your config panel not to display plain-text password, nor non-integer port numbers. You’d also want the user to be able to test the email connection.

Here’s a sample implementation for such a panel that I implemented for a recent project – I plan to discuss the implementation details of the password and port (spinner) controls in my next post, so stay tuned:

User configuration of emails in Matlab GUI (click to zoom-in)
User configuration of emails in Matlab GUI (click to zoom-in)

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/sending-email-text-messages-from-matlab/feed 0
Afterthoughts on implicit expansionhttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/afterthoughts-on-implicit-expansion http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/afterthoughts-on-implicit-expansion#comments Wed, 30 Nov 2016 20:28:44 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6750
 
Related posts:
  1. Preallocation performance Preallocation is a standard Matlab speedup technique. Still, it has several undocumented aspects. ...
  2. Graphic sizing in Matlab R2015b Matlab release R2015b's new "DPI-aware" nature broke some important functionality. Here's what can be done... ...
  3. Viewing saved profiling results We can easily use saved profiling results to analyze, view and compare profiling results of multiple runs. ...
  4. Customizing axes part 5 – origin crossover and labels The axes rulers (axles) can be made to cross-over at any x,y location within the chart. ...
 
]]>
Matlab release R2016b introduced implicit arithmetic expansion, which is a great and long-awaited natural expansion of Matlab’s arithmetic syntax (if you are still unaware of this or what it means, now would be a good time to read about it). This is a well-documented new feature. The reason for today’s post is that this new feature contains an undocumented aspect that should very well have been documented and even highlighted.

The undocumented aspect that I’m referring to is the fact that code that until R2016a produced an error, in R2016b produces a valid result:

% R2016a
>> [1:5] + [1:3]'
Error using  + 
Matrix dimensions must agree.
 
% R2016b
>> [1:5] + [1:3]'
ans =
     2     3     4     5     6
     3     4     5     6     7
     4     5     6     7     8

This incompatibility is indeed documented, but not where it matters most (read on).

I first discovered this feature by chance when trying to track down a very strange phenomenon with client code that produced different numeric results on R2015b and earlier, compared to R2016a Pre-release. After some debugging the problem was traced to a code snippet in the client’s code that looked something like this (simplified):

% Ensure compatible input data
try
    dataA + dataB;  % this will (?) error if dataA, dataB are incompatible
catch
    dataB = dataB';
end

The code snippet relied on the fact that incompatible data (row vs. col) would error when combined, as it did up to R2015b. But in R2016a Pre-release it just gave a valid numeric matrix, which caused numerically incorrect results downstream in the code. The program never crashed, so everything appeared to be in order, it just gave different numeric results. I looked at the release notes and none of the mentioned release incompatibilities appeared relevant. It took me quite some time, using side-by-side step-by-step debugging on two separate instances of Matlab (R2015b and R2016aPR) to trace the problem to this new feature.

This implicit expansion feature was removed from the official R2016a release for performance reasons. This was apparently fixed in time for R2016b’s release.

I’m totally in favor of this great new feature, don’t get me wrong. I’ve been an ardent user of bsxfun for many years and (unlike many) have even grown fond of it, but I still find the new feature to be better. I use it wherever there is no significant performance penalty, a need to support older Matlab releases, or a possibility of incorrect results due to dimensional mismatch.

So what’s my point?

What I am concerned about is that I have not seen the new feature highlighted as a potential backward compatibility issue in the documentation or the release notes. Issues of far lesser importance are clearly marked for their backward incompatibility in the release notes, but not this important major change. A simple marking of the new feature with the warning icon () and in the “Functionality being removed or changed” section would have saved my client and me a lot of time and frustration.

MathWorks are definitely aware of the potential problems that the new feature might cause in rare use cases such as this. As Steve Eddins recently noted, there were plenty of internal discussions about this very thing. MathWorks were careful to ensure that the feature’s benefits far outweigh its risks (and I concur). But this also highlights the fact that MathWorks were fully aware that in some rare cases it might indeed break existing code. For those cases, I believe that they should have clearly marked the incompatibility implications in the release notes and elsewhere.

I have several clients who scour Matlab’s release notes before each release, trying to determine the operational risk of a Matlab upgrade. Having a program that returns different results in R2016b compared to R2016a, without being aware of this risk, is simply unacceptable to them, and leaves users with a disinclination to upgrade Matlab, to MathWorks’ detriment.

MathWorks in general are taking a very serious methodical approach to compatibility issues, and are clearly investing a lot of energy in this (a recent example). It’s too bad that sometimes this chain is broken. I find it a pity, and think that this can still be corrected in the online doc pages. If and when this is fixed, I’ll be happy to post an addendum here.

In my humble opinion from the backbenches, increasing the transparency on compatibility issues and open bugs will increase user confidence and result in greater adoption and upgrades of Matlab. Just my 2 cents…

Addendum December 27, 2016:

Today MathWorks added the following compatibility warning to the release notes (R2016b, Mathematics section, first item) – thanks for listening MathWorks :-)

MathWorks compatibility warning

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/afterthoughts-on-implicit-expansion/feed 11
Speeding up Matlab-JDBC SQL querieshttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/speeding-up-matlab-jdbc-sql-queries http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/speeding-up-matlab-jdbc-sql-queries#comments Wed, 16 Nov 2016 11:43:17 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6742
 
Related posts:
  1. Speeding up compiled apps startup The MCR_CACHE_ROOT environment variable can reportedly help to speed-up deployed Matlab executables....
  2. Converting Java vectors to Matlab arrays Converting Java vectors to Matlab arrays is pretty simple - this article explains how....
  3. Explicit multi-threading in Matlab part 1 Explicit multi-threading can be achieved in Matlab by a variety of simple means. ...
  4. Secure SSL connection between Matlab and PostgreSQL It is tricky, but quite possible, to use SSL to connect Matlab to a PostgreSQL database. ...
 
]]>
Many of my consulting projects involve interfacing a Matlab program to an SQL database. In such cases, using MathWorks’ Database Toolbox is a viable solution. Users who don’t have the toolbox can also easily connect directly to the database using either the standard ODBC bridge (which is horrible for performance and stability), or a direct JDBC connection (which is also what the Database Toolbox uses under the hood). I explained this Matlab-JDBC interface in detail in chapter 2 of my Matlab-Java programming book. A bare-bones implementation of an SQL SELECT query follows (data update queries are a bit different and will not be discussed here):

% Load the appropriate JDBC driver class into Matlab's memory
% (but not directly, to bypass JIT pre-processing - we must do it in run-time!)
driver = eval('com.mysql.jdbc.Driver');  % or com.microsoft.sqlserver.jdbc.SQLServerDriver or whatever
 
% Connect to DB
dbPort = '3306'; % mySQL=3306; SQLServer=1433; Oracle=...
connectionStr = ['jdbc:mysql://' dbURL ':' dbPort '/' schemaName];  % or ['jdbc:sqlserver://' dbURL ':' dbPort ';database=' schemaName ';'] or whatever
dbConnObj = java.sql.DriverManager.getConnection(connectionStr, username, password);
 
% Send an SQL query statement to the DB and get the ResultSet
stmt = dbConnObj.createStatement(java.sql.ResultSet.TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, java.sql.ResultSet.CONCUR_READ_ONLY);
try stmt.setFetchSize(1000); catch, end  % the default fetch size is ridiculously small in many DBs
rs = stmt.executeQuery(sqlQueryStr);
 
% Get the column names and data-types from the ResultSet's meta-data
MetaData = rs.getMetaData;
numCols = MetaData.getColumnCount;
data = cell(0,numCols);  % initialize
for colIdx = numCols : -1 : 1
    ColumnNames{colIdx} = char(MetaData.getColumnLabel(colIdx));
    ColumnType{colIdx}  = char(MetaData.getColumnClassName(colIdx));  % http://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/api/java/sql/Types.html
end
ColumnType = regexprep(ColumnType,'.*\.','');
 
% Get the data from the ResultSet into a Matlab cell array
rowIdx = 1;
while rs.next  % loop over all ResultSet rows (records)
    for colIdx = 1 : numCols  % loop over all columns in the row
        switch ColumnType{colIdx}
            case {'Float','Double'}
                data{rowIdx,colIdx} = rs.getDouble(colIdx);
            case {'Long','Integer','Short','BigDecimal'}
                data{rowIdx,colIdx} = double(rs.getDouble(colIdx));
            case 'Boolean'
                data{rowIdx,colIdx} = logical(rs.getBoolean(colIdx));
            otherwise %case {'String','Date','Time','Timestamp'}
                data{rowIdx,colIdx} = char(rs.getString(colIdx));
        end
    end
    rowIdx = rowIdx + 1;
end
 
% Close the connection and clear resources
try rs.close();   catch, end
try stmt.close(); catch, end
try dbConnObj.closeAllStatements(); catch, end
try dbConnObj.close(); catch, end  % comment this to keep the dbConnObj open and reuse it for subsequent queries

Naturally, in a real-world implementation you also need to handle database timeouts and various other errors, handle data-manipulation queries (not just SELECTs), etc.

Anyway, this works well in general, but when you try to fetch a ResultSet that has many thousands of records you start to feel the pain – The SQL statement may execute much faster on the DB server (the time it takes for the stmt.executeQuery call), yet the subsequent double-loop processing to fetch the data from the Java ResultSet object into a Matlab cell array takes much longer.

In one of my recent projects, performance was of paramount importance, and the DB query speed from the code above was simply not good enough. You might think that this was due to the fact that the data cell array is not pre-allocated, but this turns out to be incorrect: the speed remains nearly unaffected when you pre-allocate data properly. It turns out that the main problem is due to Matlab’s non-negligible overhead in calling methods of Java objects. Since the JDBC interface only enables retrieving a single data item at a time (in other words, bulk retrieval is not possible), we have a double loop over all the data’s rows and columns, in each case calling the appropriate Java method to retrieve the data based on the column’s type. The Java methods themselves are extremely efficient, but when you add Matlab’s invocation overheads the total processing time is much much slower.

So what can be done? As Andrew Janke explained in much detail, we basically need to push our double loop down into the Java level, so that Matlab receives arrays of primitive values, which can then be processed in a vectorized manner in Matlab.

So let’s create a simple Java class to do this:

// Copyright (c) Yair Altman UndocumentedMatlab.com
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.ResultSetMetaData;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.sql.Types;
 
public class JDBC_Fetch {
 
	public static int DEFAULT_MAX_ROWS = 100000;   // default cache size = 100K rows (if DB does not support non-forward-only ResultSets)
 
	public static Object[] getData(ResultSet rs) throws SQLException {
		try {
			if (rs.last()) {  // data is available
				int numRows = rs.getRow();    // row # of the last row
				rs.beforeFirst();             // get back to the top of the ResultSet
				return getData(rs, numRows);  // fetch the data
			} else {  // no data in the ResultSet
				return null;
			}
		} catch (Exception e) {
			return getData(rs, DEFAULT_MAX_ROWS);
		}
	}
 
	public static Object[] getData(ResultSet rs, int maxRows) throws SQLException {
		// Read column number and types from the ResultSet's meta-data
		ResultSetMetaData metaData = rs.getMetaData();
		int numCols = metaData.getColumnCount();
		int[] colTypes = new int[numCols+1];
		int numDoubleCols = 0;
		int numBooleanCols = 0;
		int numStringCols = 0;
		for (int colIdx = 1; colIdx <= numCols; colIdx++) {
			int colType = metaData.getColumnType(colIdx);
			switch (colType) {
				case Types.FLOAT:
				case Types.DOUBLE:
				case Types.REAL:
					colTypes[colIdx] = 1;  // double
					numDoubleCols++;
					break;
				case Types.DECIMAL:
				case Types.INTEGER:
				case Types.TINYINT:
				case Types.SMALLINT:
				case Types.BIGINT:
					colTypes[colIdx] = 1;  // double
					numDoubleCols++;
					break;
				case Types.BIT:
				case Types.BOOLEAN:
					colTypes[colIdx] = 2;  // boolean
					numBooleanCols++;
					break;
				default: // 'String','Date','Time','Timestamp',...
					colTypes[colIdx] = 3;  // string
					numStringCols++;
			}
		}
 
		// Loop over all ResultSet rows, reading the data into the 2D matrix caches
		int rowIdx = 0;
		double [][] dataCacheDouble  = new double [numDoubleCols] [maxRows];
		boolean[][] dataCacheBoolean = new boolean[numBooleanCols][maxRows];
		String [][] dataCacheString  = new String [numStringCols] [maxRows];
		while (rs.next() && rowIdx < maxRows) {
			int doubleColIdx = 0;
			int booleanColIdx = 0;
			int stringColIdx = 0;
			for (int colIdx = 1; colIdx <= numCols; colIdx++) {
				try {
					switch (colTypes[colIdx]) {
						case 1:  dataCacheDouble[doubleColIdx++][rowIdx]   = rs.getDouble(colIdx);   break;  // numeric
						case 2:  dataCacheBoolean[booleanColIdx++][rowIdx] = rs.getBoolean(colIdx);  break;  // boolean
						default: dataCacheString[stringColIdx++][rowIdx]   = rs.getString(colIdx);   break;  // string
					}
				} catch (Exception e) {
					System.out.println(e);
					System.out.println(" in row #" + rowIdx + ", col #" + colIdx);
				}
			}
			rowIdx++;
		}
 
		// Return only the actual data in the ResultSet
		int doubleColIdx = 0;
		int booleanColIdx = 0;
		int stringColIdx = 0;
		Object[] data = new Object[numCols];
		for (int colIdx = 1; colIdx <= numCols; colIdx++) {
			switch (colTypes[colIdx]) {
				case 1:   data[colIdx-1] = dataCacheDouble[doubleColIdx++];    break;  // numeric
				case 2:   data[colIdx-1] = dataCacheBoolean[booleanColIdx++];  break;  // boolean
				default:  data[colIdx-1] = dataCacheString[stringColIdx++];            // string
			}
		}
		return data;
	}
}

So now we have a JDBC_Fetch class that we can use in our Matlab code, replacing the slow double loop with a single call to JDBC_Fetch.getData(), followed by vectorized conversion into a Matlab cell array (matrix):

% Get the data from the ResultSet using the JDBC_Fetch wrapper
data = cell(JDBC_Fetch.getData(rs));
for colIdx = 1 : numCols
   switch ColumnType{colIdx}
      case {'Float','Double'}
          data{colIdx} = num2cell(data{colIdx});
      case {'Long','Integer','Short','BigDecimal'}
          data{colIdx} = num2cell(data{colIdx});
      case 'Boolean'
          data{colIdx} = num2cell(data{colIdx});
      otherwise %case {'String','Date','Time','Timestamp'}
          %data{colIdx} = cell(data{colIdx});  % no need to do anything here!
   end
end
data = [data{:}];

On my specific program the resulting speedup was 15x (this is not a typo: 15 times faster). My fetches are no longer limited by the Matlab post-processing, but rather by the DB’s processing of the SQL statement (where DB indexes, clustering, SQL tuning etc. come into play).

Additional speedups can be achieved by parsing dates at the Java level (rather than returning strings), as well as several other tweaks in the Java and Matlab code (refer to Andrew Janke’s post for some ideas). But certainly the main benefit (the 80% of the gain that was achieved in 20% of the worktime) is due to the above push of the main double processing loop down into the Java level, leaving Matlab with just a single Java call to JDBC_Fetch.

Many additional ideas of speeding up database queries and Matlab programs in general can be found in my second book, Accelerating Matlab Performance.

If you’d like me to help you speed up your Matlab program, please email me (altmany at gmail), or fill out the query form on my consulting page.

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/speeding-up-matlab-jdbc-sql-queries/feed 5
Working with non-standard DPI displayshttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/working-with-non-standard-dpi-displays http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/working-with-non-standard-dpi-displays#comments Wed, 09 Nov 2016 21:47:27 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6736
 
Related posts:
  1. Customizing the standard figure toolbar, menubar The standard figure toolbar and menubar can easily be modified to include a list of recently-used files....
  2. Graphic sizing in Matlab R2015b Matlab release R2015b's new "DPI-aware" nature broke some important functionality. Here's what can be done... ...
  3. Smart listbox & editbox scrollbars Matlab listbox and multi-line editbox scrollbars can easily be made smarter, for improved appearance. ...
  4. FindJObj – find a Matlab component’s underlying Java object The FindJObj utility can be used to access and display the internal components of Matlab controls and containers. This article explains its uses and inner mechanism....
 
]]>
With high-density displays becoming increasingly popular, some users set their display’s DPI to a higher-than-standard (i.e., >100%) value, in order to compensate for the increased pixel density to achieve readable interfaces. This OS setting tells the running applications that there are fewer visible screen pixels, and these are spread over a larger number of physical pixels. This works well for most cases (at least on recent OSes, it was a bit buggy in non-recet ones). Unfortunately, in some cases we might actually want to know the screen size in physical, rather than logical, pixels. Apparently, Matlab root’s ScreenSize property only reports the logical (scaled) pixel size, not the physical (unscaled) one:

>> get(0,'ScreenSize')   % with 100% DPI (unscaled standard)
ans =
        1       1      1366       768
 
>> get(0,'ScreenSize')   % with 125% DPI (scaled)
ans =
        1       1      1092.8     614.4

The same phenomenon also affects other related properties, for example MonitorPositions.

Raimund Schlüßler, a reader on this blog, was kind enough to point me to this problem and its workaround, which I thought worthy to share here: To get the physical screen-size, use the following builtin Java command:

>> jScreenSize = java.awt.Toolkit.getDefaultToolkit.getScreenSize
jScreenSize =
java.awt.Dimension[width=1366,height=768]
 
>> width = jScreenSize.getWidth
width =
        1366
 
>> height = jScreenSize.getHeight
height =
        768

Also see the related recent article on an issue with the DPI-aware feature starting with R2015b.

Upcoming travels – London/Belfast, Zürich & Geneva

I will shortly be traveling to consult some clients in Belfast (via London), Zürich and Geneva. If you are in the area and wish to meet me to discuss how I could bring value to your work, then please email me (altmany at gmail):

  • Belfast: Nov 28 – Dec 1 (flying via London)
  • Zürich: Dec 11-12
  • Geneva: Dec 13-15
]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/working-with-non-standard-dpi-displays/feed 6
uigetfile/uiputfile customizationshttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/uigetfile-uiputfile-customizations http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/uigetfile-uiputfile-customizations#respond Wed, 02 Nov 2016 23:38:57 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6728
 
Related posts:
  1. Figure window customizations Matlab figure windows can be customized in numerous manners using the underlying Java Frame reference. ...
  2. Figure toolbar customizations Matlab's toolbars can be customized using a combination of undocumented Matlab and Java hacks. This article describes how to customize the Matlab figure toolbar....
  3. Uitab customizations This article shows several customizations that can be done to Matlab's undocumented tab-panels functionality...
  4. Bar plot customizations Matlab bar charts can be customized in various nifty ways. ...
 
]]>
Matlab includes a few built-in file and folder selection dialog windows, namely uigetfile, uiputfile and uigetdir. Unfortunately, these functions are not easily extendable for user-defined functionalities. Over the years, several of my consulting clients have asked me to provide them with versions of these dialog functions that are customized in certain ways. In today’s post I discuss a few of these customizations: a file selector dialog with a preview panel, and automatic folder update as-you-type in the file-name edit box.

It is often useful to have an integrated preview panel to display the contents of a file in a file-selection dialog. Clicking the various files in the tree-view would display a user-defined preview in the panel below, based on the file’s contents. An integrated panel avoids the need to manage multiple figure windows, one for the selector dialog and another for the preview. It also reduces the screen real-estate used by the dialog (also see the related resizing customization below).

I call the end-result uigetfile_with_preview; you can download it from the Matlab File Exchange:

filename = uigetfile_with_preview(filterSpec, prompt, folder, callbackFunction, multiSelectFlag)

uigetfile_with_preview

As you can see from the function signature, the user can specify the file-type filter, prompt and initial folder (quite similar to uigetfile, uiputfile), as well as a custom callback function for updating the preview of a selected file, and a flag to enable selecting multiple files (not just one).

uigetfile_with_preview.m only has ~120 lines of code and plenty of comments, so feel free to download and review the code. It uses the following undocumented aspects:

  1. I used a com.mathworks.hg.util.dFileChooser component for the main file selector. This is a builtin Matlab control that extends the standard javax.swing.JFileChooser with a few properties and methods. I don’t really need the extra features, so you can safely replace the component with a JFileChooser if you wish (lines 54-55). Various properties of the file selector are then set, such as the folder that is initially displayed, the multi-selection flag, the component background color, and the data-type filter options.
  2. I used the javacomponent function to place the file-selector component within the dialog window.
  3. I set a callback on the component’s PropertyChangeCallback that is invoked whenever the user interactively selects a new file. This callback clears the preview panel and then calls the user-defined callback function (if available).
  4. I set a callback on the component’s ActionPerformedCallback that is invoked whenever the user closes the figure or clicks the “Open” button. The selected filename(s) is/are then returned to the caller and the dialog window is closed.
  5. I set a callback on the component’s file-name editbox’s KeyTypedCallback that is invoked whenever the user types in the file-name editbox. The callback checks whether the entered text looks like a valid folder path and if so then it automatically updates the displayed folder as-you-type.

If you want to convert the code to a uiputfile variant, add the following code lines before the uiwait in line 111:

hjFileChooser.setShowOverwriteDialog(true);  % default: false (true will display a popup alert if you select an existing file)
hjFileChooser.setDialogType(hjFileChooser.java.SAVE_DIALOG);  % default: OPEN_DIALOG
hjFileChooser.setApproveButtonText('Save');  % or any other string. Default for SAVE_DIALOG: 'Save'
hjFileChooser.setApproveButtonToolTipText('Save file');  % or any other string. Default for SAVE_DIALOG: 'Save selected file'

In memory of my dear father.

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/uigetfile-uiputfile-customizations/feed 0
Icon images & text in Matlab uicontrolshttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/icon-images-in-matlab-uicontrols http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/icon-images-in-matlab-uicontrols#comments Wed, 28 Sep 2016 10:28:04 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6687
 
Related posts:
  1. Images in Matlab uicontrols & labels Images can be added to Matlab controls and labels in a variety of manners, documented and undocumented. ...
  2. Panel-level uicontrols Matlab's uipanel contains a hidden handle to the title label, which can be modified into a checkbox or radio-button control...
  3. Animated busy (spinning) icon An animated spinning icon label can easily be embedded in Matlab GUI. ...
  4. Transparency in uicontrols Matlab uicontrols' CData property can be customized to provide background transparency....
 
]]>
One of my consulting clients recently asked me if I knew any builtin Matlab GUI control that could display a list of colormap names alongside their respective image icons, in a listbox or popup menu (drop-down/combo-box):

Matlab listbox with icon images   Matlab popup menu (dropdown/combobox) with icon images

Matlab listbox (left) & popup menu (right) with icon images

My initial thought was that this should surely be possible, since Colormap is a documented figure property, that should therefore be listed inside the inspector window, and should therefore have an associated builtin Java control for the dropdown (just like other inspector controls, which are part of the com.mathworks.mlwidgets package, or possibly as a standalone control in the com.mathworks.mwswing package). To my surprise it turns out that for some unknown reason MathWorks neglected to add the Colormap property (and associated Java controls) to the inspector. This property is fully documented and all, just like Color and other standard figure properties, but unlike them Colormap can only be modified programmatically, not via the inspector window. Matlab does provide the related colormapeditor function and associated dialog window, but I would have expected a simple drop-down of the standard builtin colormaps to be available in the inspector. Anyway, this turned out to be a dead-end.

It turns out that we can relatively easily implement the requested listbox/combo-box using a bit of HTML magic, as I explained last week. The basic idea is for each of the listbox/combobox items to be an HTML string that contains both an <img> tag for the icon and the item label text. For example, such a string might contain something like this (parula is Matlab’s default colormap in HG2, starting in R2014b):

<html><img src="http://www.mathworks.com/help/matlab/ref/colormap_parula.png">parula

parula colormap image

parula colormap image

Of course, it would be a bit inefficient for each of the icons to be fetched from the internet. Luckily, the full set of Matlab documentation is typically installed on the local computer as part of the standard Matlab installation, beneath the docroot folder (e.g., C:\Program Files\Matlab\R2016b\help). In our specific case, the parula colormap image is located in:

imageFilename = [docroot, '/matlab/ref/colormap_parula.png']

Note that for a local image to be accepted by HTML, it needs to follow certain conventions. In our case, the HTML string for displaying the above image is:

<html><img src="file:///C:/Program%20Files/Matlab/R2016b/help/matlab/ref/colormap_parula.png">parula

Warning: it’s easy when dealing with HTML images in Matlab to get the format confused, resulting in a red-x icon. I discussed this issue some 4 years ago, which is still relevant.

How can we get the list of available builtin colormaps? The standard Matlab way of doing this would be something like this:

>> possibleColormaps = set(gcf,'Colormap')
possibleColormaps = 
     {}

but as we can see, for some unknown reason (probably another MathWorks omission), Matlab does not list the names of its available builtin colormaps.

Fortunately, all the builtin colormaps have image filenames that follow the same convention, which make it easy to get this list by simply listing the names of the relevant files, from which we can easily create the necessary HTML strings:

>> iconFiles = dir([docroot, '/matlab/ref/colormap_*.png']);
 
>> colormapNames = regexprep({iconFiles.name}, '.*_(.*).png', '$1')
colormapNames =  
  Columns 1 through 9
    'autumn'    'bone'    'colorcube'    'cool'    'copper'    'flag'    'gray'    'hot'    'hsv'
  Columns 10 through 18
    'jet'    'lines'    'parula'    'pink'    'prism'    'spring'    'summer'    'white'    'winter'
 
>> htmlStrings = strcat('<html><img width=200 height=10 src="file:///C:/Program%20Files/Matlab/R2016a/help/matlab/ref/colormap_', colormapNames', '.png">', colormapNames')
str = 
    '<html><img width=200 height=10 src="file:///C:/Program%20Files/Matlab/R2016a/help/matlab/ref/colormap_autumn.png">autumn'
    '<html><img width=200 height=10 src="file:///C:/Program%20Files/Matlab/R2016a/help/matlab/ref/colormap_bone.png">bone'
    '<html><img width=200 height=10 src="file:///C:/Program%20Files/Matlab/R2016a/help/matlab/ref/colormap_colorcube.png">colorcube'
    ...
 
>> hListbox = uicontrol(gcf, 'Style','listbox', 'Units','pixel', 'Pos',[10,10,270,200], 'String',htmlStrings);
>> hPopup   = uicontrol(gcf, 'Style','popup',   'Units','pixel', 'Pos',[10,500,270,20], 'String',htmlStrings);

…which results in the screenshots at the top of this post.

Note how I scaled the images to 10px high (so that the labels would be shown and not cropped vertically) and 200px wide (so that it becomes narrower than the default 434px). There’s really no need in this case for the full 434×27 image size – such flat images scale very nicely, even when their aspect ratio is not preserved. You can adjust the height and width values for a best fit with you GUI.

Unfortunately, it seems that HTML strings are not supported in the new web-based uifigure controls. This is not really Matlab’s fault because the way to customize labels in HTML controls is via CSS: directly embedding HTML code in labels does not work (it’s a Java-Swing feature, not a browser feature). I really hope that either HTML or CSS processing will be enabled for web-based uicontrol in a future Matlab release, because until that time uifigure uicontrols will remain seriously deficient compared to standard figure uicontrols. Until then, if we must use uifigures and wish to customize our labels or listbox items, we can directly access the underlying web controls, as Iliya explained here.


A blog reader recently complained that I’m abusing Swing and basically making Matlab work in unnatural ways, “something it was never meant to be“. I feel that using HTML as I’ve shown last week and in this post would fall under the same category in his eyes. To him and to others who complain I say that I have absolutely no remorse about doing this. When I purchase anything I have the full rights (within the scope of the license) to adapt it in whatever way fits my needs. As a software developer and manager for over 25 years, I’ve developed in dozens of programming languages and environments, and I still enjoy [ab]using Matlab. Matlab is a great environment to get things done quickly and if this sometimes requires a bit of HTML or Java hacks that make some people cringe, then that’s their problem, not mine – I’m content with being able to do in Matlab [nearly] everything I want, quickly, and move on to the next project. As long as it gets the job done, that’s fine by me. If this makes me more of an engineer than a computer scientist, then so be it.

On the flip side, I say to those who claim that Matlab is lacking in this or that aspect, that in most likelihood the limitation is only in their minds, not in Matlab – we can do amazing stuff with Matlab if we just open our minds, and possibly use some undocumented hacks. I’m not saying that Matlab has no limitations, I’m just saying that in most cases they can be overcome if we took the time and trouble to look for a solution. Matlab is a great tool and yet many people are not aware of its potential. Blaming Matlab for its failings is just an easy excuse in many cases. Of course, MathWorks could help my crusade on this subject by enabling useful features such as easy GUI component customizations…

On this sad day, I wish you all Shanah Tova!

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/icon-images-in-matlab-uicontrols/feed 5
Aligning uicontrol contentshttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/aligning-uicontrol-contents http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/aligning-uicontrol-contents#respond Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:10:18 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6663
 
Related posts:
  1. Spicing up Matlab uicontrol tooltips Matlab uicontrol tooltips can be spiced-up using HTML and CSS, including fonts, colors, tables and images...
  2. Rich-contents log panel Matlab listboxes and editboxes can be used to display rich-contents HTML-formatted strings, which is ideal for log panels. ...
  3. Uicontrol callbacks This post details undocumented callbacks exposed by the underlying Java object of Matlab uicontrols, that can be used to modify the control's behavior in a multitude of different events...
  4. Rich Matlab editbox contents The Matlab editbox uicontrol does not handle HTML contents as do other uicontrols. In this article I show how this limitation can be removed....
 
]]>
Matlab automatically aligns the text contents of uicontrols: button labels are centered, listbox contents are left-aligned, and table cells align depending on their contents (left-aligned for strings, centered for logical values, and right-aligned for numbers). Unfortunately, the control’s HorizontalAlignment property is generally ignored by uicontrols. So how can we force Matlab buttons (for example) to have right-aligned labels, or for listbox/table cells to be centered? Undocumented Matlab has the answer, yet again…

It turns out that there are at least two distinct ways to set uicontrol alignment, using HTML and using Java. Today I will only discuss the HTML variant.

The HTML method relies on the fact that Matlab uicontrols accept and process HTML strings. This was true ever since Matlab GUI started relying on Java Swing components (which inherently accept HTML labels) over a decade ago. This is expected to remain true even in Matlab’s upcoming web-based GUI system, since Matlab would need to consciously disable HTML in its web components, and I see no reason for MathWorks to do so. In short, HTML parsing of GUI control strings is here to stay for the foreseeable future.

% note: no need to close HTML tags, e.g. </font></html>
uicontrol('Style','list', 'Position',[10,10,70,70], 'String', ...
          {'<HTML><FONT color="red">Hello</Font></html>', 'world', ...
           '<html><font style="font-family:impact;color:green"><i>What a', ...
           '<Html><FONT color="blue" face="Comic Sans MS">nice day!'});

Listbox with HTML items

Listbox with HTML items

While HTML formatting is generally frowned-upon compared to the alternatives, it provides a very quick and easy way to format text labels in various different manners, including using a combination of font faces, sizes, colors and other aspects (bold, italic, super/sub-script, underline etc.) within a single text label. This is naturally impossible to do with Matlab’s standard properties, but is super-easy with HTML placed in the label’s String property.

Unfortunately, while Java Swing (and therefore Matlab) honors only a [large] sub-set of HTML and CSS. The most important directives are parsed but some others are not, and this is often difficult to debug. Luckily, using HTML and CSS there are often multiple ways to achieve the same visual effect, so if one method fails we can usually find an alternative. Such was the case when a reader asked me why the following seemingly-simple HTML snippet failed to right-align his button label:

hButton.String = '<html><div style="text-align:right">text';

As I explained in my answer, it’s not Matlab that ignores the CSS align directive but rather the underlying Swing behavior, which snugly fits the text in the center of the button, and of course aligning text within a tight-fitting box has no effect. The workaround that I suggested simply forces Swing to use a non-tightly-fitting boundary box, within which we can indeed align the text:

pxPos = getpixelposition(hButton);
hButton.String = ['<html><div width="' num2str(pxPos(3)-20) 'px" align="right">text'];  % button margins use 20px

centered (default) button label   right-aligned button label

Centered (default) and right-aligned button labels

This solution is very easy to set up and maintain, and requires no special knowledge other than a bit of HTML/CSS, which most programmers know in this day and age.

Of course, the solution relies on the actual button size. So, if the button is created with normalized units and changes its size when its parent container is resized, we’d need to set a callback function on the parent (e.g., SizeChangedFcn of a uipanel) to automatically adjust the button’s string based on its updated size. A better solution that would be independent of the button’s pixel-size and would work even when the button is resized needs to use Java.

A related solution for table cells uses a different HTML-based trick: this time, we embed an HTML table cell within the Matlab control’s cell, employing the fact that HTML table cells can easily be aligned. We just need to ensure that the HTML cell is defined to be larger than the actual cell width, so that the alignment fits well. We do this by setting the HTML cell width to 9999 pixels (note that the tr and td HTML tags are necessary, but the table tag is optional):

uitable('Units','norm','Pos',[0,0,0.3,0.3], 'Data', ...
        {'Left', ...
         '<html><tr><td align=center width=9999>Center', ...
         '<html><tr><td align=right  width=9999>Right'});

Non-default alignment of uitable cells

Non-default alignment of uitable cells

As noted above, a better solution might be to set the underlying Java component’s alignment properties (or in the case of the uitable, its underlying JTable component’s cellrenderer’s alignment). But in the general case, simple HTML such as above could well be sufficient.

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/aligning-uicontrol-contents/feed 0
Customizing uifigures part 2http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/customizing-uifigures-part-2 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/customizing-uifigures-part-2#respond Wed, 07 Sep 2016 17:00:57 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6635
 
Related posts:
  1. Customizing uifigures part 1 Matlab's new web-based uifigures can be customized in a variety of undocumented ways. ...
  2. Customizing uitree nodes – part 1 This article describes how to customize specific nodes of Matlab GUI tree controls created using the undocumented uitree function...
  3. Customizing uitree This article describes how to customize Matlab GUI tree controls created using the undocumented uitree function...
  4. Customizing help popup contents The built-in HelpPopup, available since Matlab R2007b, has a back-door that enables displaying arbitrary text, HTML and URL web-pages....
 
]]>
I would like to introduce guest blogger Iliya Romm of Israel’s Technion Turbomachinery and Heat Transfer Laboratory. Today Iliya will discuss how Matlab’s new web-based figures can be customized with user-controlled CSS and JavaScript code.

When we compare the documented properties of a “classic” uicontrol with an App Designer control such as uicheckbox, we see lists of 42 and 15 properties, respectively. At first glance, this implies that our ability to customize App Designer elements is relatively very limited. This is surely a disquieting conclusion, especially for those used to being able to change most aspect of their Matlab figures via Java. Fortunately, such a conclusion is quite far from reality, as we will shortly see.

To understand this claim, we need to consider a previous post on this blog, where Yair discussed how uifigures are actually HTML webpages rendered by Matlab. As such, they have a DOM that can be accessed and manipulated through JavaScript commands to achieve various visual customizations. Today we’ll explore the structure of the uifigure webpage; take a look at some possibilities provided by the Dojo Toolkit; and see how to use Dojo to customize uifigure controls visually using CSS styles and/or HTML attributes.

User customizations of Matlab uifigures (click to zoom-in)
User customizations of Matlab uifigures (click to zoom-in)

A brief introduction to CSS

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. As described on the official webpage of W3C (which governs web standards):

CSS is the language for describing the presentation of Web pages, including colors, layout, and fonts. CSS is independent of HTML. This is referred to as the separation of structure (or: content) from presentation.

CSS rules (or “styles”) can be defined in one of three places:

  • A separate file, such as the main.css that Matlab uses for uifigures (this file is found minified in %matlabroot%\toolbox\matlab\uitools\uifigureappjs\release\gbtclient\css)
  • An inline block inside the HTML’s <head> section
  • Directly within a DOM node

Deciding which of the above to use, is largely a choice of the right tool for the job. Usually, the first two choices should be preferred, as they adhere to the “separation of structure and presentation” idea better. However, in the scope of this demonstration, we’ll be using mostly the 3rd option, because it allows us not to worry about possible CSS precedence issues (suggested read).

The syntax of CSS is generally: selector { property: value }, but it can have other forms as well.

Getting down to business

Let us consider a very basic uifigure that only contains a uitextarea and its label:

Simple demo uifigure with a TextArea and label

Simple demo uifigure with a TextArea and label

The auto-generated code for it is:

classdef DOMdemo < matlab.apps.AppBase
 
    % Properties that correspond to app components
    properties (Access = public)
        UIFigure      matlab.ui.Figure           % UI Figure
        LabelTextArea matlab.ui.control.Label    % Text Area
        TextArea      matlab.ui.control.TextArea % This is some text.        
    end
 
    methods (Access = private)
        % Code that executes after component creation
        function startupFcn(app)
        end
    end
 
    % App initialization and construction
    methods (Access = private)
 
        % Create UIFigure and components
        function createComponents(app)
            % Create UIFigure
            app.UIFigure = uifigure;
            app.UIFigure.Position = [100 100 280 102];
            app.UIFigure.Name = 'UI Figure';
            setAutoResize(app, app.UIFigure, true)
 
            % Create LabelTextArea
            app.LabelTextArea = uilabel(app.UIFigure);
            app.LabelTextArea.HorizontalAlignment = 'right';
            app.LabelTextArea.Position = [16 73 62 15];
            app.LabelTextArea.Text = 'Text Area';
 
            % Create TextArea
            app.TextArea = uitextarea(app.UIFigure);
            app.TextArea.Position = [116 14 151 60];
            app.TextArea.Value = {'This is some text.'};
        end
    end
 
    methods (Access = public)
 
        % Construct app
        function app = DOMdemo()
            % Create and configure components
            createComponents(app)
 
            % Register the app with App Designer
            registerApp(app, app.UIFigure)
 
            % Execute the startup function
            runStartupFcn(app, @startupFcn)
 
            if nargout == 0
                clear app
            end
        end
 
        % Code that executes before app deletion
        function delete(app)
            % Delete UIFigure when app is deleted
            delete(app.UIFigure)
        end
    end
end

Let’s say we want to modify certain aspects of the TextArea widget, such as the text color, background, and/or horizontal alignment. The workflow for styling elements involves:

  1. Find the handle to the webfigure
  2. Find the DOM node we want to modify
  3. Find the property name that corresponds to the change we want
  4. Find a way to manipulate the desired node from Matlab

Step 1: Find the handle to the webfigure

The first thing we need to do is to strategically place a bit of code that would allow us to get the URL of the figure so we can inspect it in our browser:

function startupFcn(app)
   % Customizations (aka "MAGIC GOES HERE"):
   warning off Matlab:HandleGraphics:ObsoletedProperty:JavaFrame
   warning off Matlab:structOnObject    
   while true
      try   
         win = struct(struct(struct(app).UIFigure).Controller).Container.CEF;
         disp(win.URL);
         break
      catch
         disp('Not ready yet!');
         pause(0.5); % Give the figure (webpage) some more time to load
      end
   end
end

This code waits until the page is sufficiently loaded, and then retrieve its local address (URL). The result will be something like this, which can be directly opened in any browser (outside Matlab):

http://localhost:31415/toolbox/matlab/uitools/uifigureappjs/componentContainer.html?channel=/uicontainer/861ef484-534e-4a50-993e-6d00bdba73a5&snc=88E96E

Step 2: Find the DOM node that corresponds to the component that we want to modify

Loading this URL in an external browser (e.g., Chrome, Firefox or IE/Edge) enables us to use web-development addins (e.g., FireBug) to inspect the page contents (source-code). Opening the URL inside a browser and inspecting the page contents, we can see its DOM:

Inspecting the DOM in Firefox (click to zoom-in)
Inspecting the DOM in Firefox (click to zoom-in)

Notice the three data-tag entries marked by red frames. Any idea why there are exactly three nonempty tags like that? This is because our App Designer object, app, contains 3 declared children, as defined in:

createComponents(app):
    app.UIFigure = uifigure;
    app.LabelTextArea = uilabel(app.UIFigure);
    app.TextArea = uitextarea(app.UIFigure);

… and each of them is assigned a random hexadecimal id whenever the app is opened.

Finding the relevant node involved some trial-and-error, but after doing it several times I seem to have found a consistent pattern that can be used to our advantage. Apparently, the nodes with data-tag are always above the element we want to style, sometimes as a direct parent and sometimes farther away. So why do we even need to bother with choosing more accurate nodes than these “tagged” ones? Shouldn’t styles applied to the tagged nodes cascade down to the element we care about? Sure, sometimes it works like that, but we want to do better than “sometimes”. To that end, we would like to select as relevant a node as possible.

Anyway, the next step in the program is to find the data-tag that corresponds to the selected component. Luckily, there is a direct (undocumented) way to get it:

% Determine the data-tag of the DOM component that we want to modify:
hComponent = app.TextArea;  % handle to the component that we want to modify
data_tag = char(struct(hComponent).Controller.ProxyView.PeerNode.getId);  % this part is generic: can be used with any web-based GUI component

Let’s take a look at the elements marked with blue and green borders (in that order) in the DOM screenshot. We see that the data-tag property is exactly one level above these elements, in other words, the first child of the tagged node is an element that contains a widgetid property. This property is very important, as it contains the id of the node that we actually want to change. Think pointers. To summarize this part:

data-tag   =>   widgetid   =>   widget “handle”

We shall use this transformation in Step 4 below.

I wanted to start with the blue-outlined element as it demonstrates this structure using distinct elements. The green-outlined element is slightly strange, as it contains a widgetid that points back to itself. Since this obeys the same algorithm, it’s not a problem.

Step 3: Find the CSS property name that corresponds to the change we want

There is no trick here: it’s just a matter of going through a list of CSS properties and choosing one that “sounds about right” (there are often several ways to achieve the same visual result with CSS). After we choose the relevant properties, we need to convert them to camelCase as per documentation of dojo.style():

If the CSS style property is hyphenated, the JavaScript property is camelCased. For example: “font-size” becomes “fontSize”, and so on.

Note that Matlab R2016a comes bundled with Dojo v1.10.4, rev. f4fef70 (January 11 2015). Other Matlab releases will probably come with other Dojo versions. They will never be the latest version of Dojo, but rather a version that is 1-2 years old. We should keep this in mind when searching the Dojo documentation. We can get the current Dojo version as follows:

>> f=uifigure; drawnow; dojoVersion = matlab.internal.webwindowmanager.instance.windowList(1).executeJS('dojo.version'), delete(f)
dojoVersion =
{"major":1,"minor":10,"patch":4,"flag":"","revision":"f4fef70"}

This tells us that Dojo 1.10.4.f4fef70 is the currently-used version. We can use this information to browse the relevant documentation branch, as well as possibly use different Dojo functions/features.

Step 4: Manipulate the desired element from Matlab

In this demo, we’ll use a combination of several commands:

  • {matlab.internal.webwindow.}executeJS() – For sending JS commands to the uifigure.
  • dojo.query() – for finding nodes inside the DOM.
  • dojo.style() (deprecated since v1.8) – for applying styles to the required nodes of the DOM.
    Syntax: dojo.style(node, style, value);
  • dojo.setAttr (deprecated since v1.8) – for setting some non-style attributes.
    Syntax: dojo.setAttr(node, name, value);

Consider the following JS commands:

  • search the DOM for nodes having a data-tag attribute having the specified value, take their first child of type <div>, and return the value of this child’s widgetid attribute:
    ['dojo.getAttr(dojo.query("[data-tag^=''' data_tag '''] > div")[0],"widgetid")']
  • search the DOM for nodes with id of widgetid, then take the first element of the result and set its text alignment:
    ['dojo.style(dojo.query("#' widgetId(2:end-1) '")[0],"textAlign","center")']
  • append the CSS style defined by {SOME CSS STYLE} to the page (this style can later be used by nodes):
    ['document.head.innerHTML += ''<style>{SOME CSS STYLE}</style>''']);

Putting it all together

It should finally be possible to understand the code that appears in the animated screenshot at the top of this post:

%% 1. Get a handle to the webwindow:
win = struct(struct(struct(app).UIFigure).Controller).Container.CEF;
 
%% 2. Find which element of the DOM we want to edit (as before):
data_tag = char(struct(app.TextArea).Controller.ProxyView.PeerNode.getId);
 
%% 3. Manipulate the DOM via a JS command
% ^ always references a class="vc-widget" element.
widgetId = win.executeJS(['dojo.getAttr(dojo.query("[data-tag^=''' data_tag '''] > div")[0],"widgetid")']);
 
% Change font weight:
dojo_style_prefix = ['dojo.style(dojo.query("#' widgetId(2:end-1) '")[0],'];
win.executeJS([dojo_style_prefix '"fontWeight","900")']);
 
% Change font color:
win.executeJS([dojo_style_prefix '"color","yellow")']);
 
% Add an inline css to the HTML <head>:
win.executeJS(['document.head.innerHTML += ''<style>'...
    '@-webkit-keyframes mymove {50% {background-color: blue;}}'...
    '@keyframes mymove {50% {background-color: blue;}}</style>''']);
 
% Add animation to control:      
win.executeJS([dojo_style_prefix '"-webkit-animation","mymove 5s infinite")']);
 
% Change Dojo theme:
win.executeJS('dojo.setAttr(document.body,''class'',''nihilo'')[0]');
 
% Center text:
win.executeJS([dojo_style_prefix '"textAlign","center")']);

A similar method for center-aligning the items in a uilistbox is described here (using a CSS text-align directive).

The only thing we need to ensure before running code that manipulates the DOM, is that the page is fully loaded. The easiest way is to include a pause() of several seconds right after the createComponents(app) function (this will not interfere with the creation of the uifigure, as it happens on a different thread). I have been experimenting with another method involving webwindow‘s PageLoadFinishedCallback callback, but haven’t found anything elegant yet.

A few words of caution

In this demonstration, we invoked Dojo functions via the webwindow’s JS interface. For something like this to be possible, there has to exist some form of “bridge” that translates Matlab commands to JS commands issued to the browser and control the DOM. We also know that this bridge has to be bi-directional, because binding Matlab callbacks to uifigure actions (e.g. ButtonPushFcn for uibuttons) is a documented feature.

The extent to which the bridge might allow malicious code to control the Matlab process needs to be investigated. Until then, the ability of webwindows to execute arbitrary JS code should be considered a known vulnerability. For more information, see XSS and related vulnerabilities.

Final remarks

It should be clear now that there are actually lots of possibilities afforded by the new uifigures for user customizations. One would hope that future Matlab releases will expose easier and more robust hooks for CSS/JS customizations of uifigure contents. But until that time arrives (if ever), we can make do with the mechanism shown above.

Readers are welcome to visit the GitHub project dedicated to manipulating uifigures using the methods discussed in this post. Feel free to comment, suggest improvements and ideas, and of course submit some pull requests :)

p.s. – it turns out that uifigures can also display MathML. But this is a topic for another post…

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/customizing-uifigures-part-2/feed 0
Zero-testing performancehttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/zero-testing-performance http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/zero-testing-performance#comments Wed, 31 Aug 2016 17:00:44 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6622
 
Related posts:
  1. Performance: scatter vs. line In many circumstances, the line function can generate visually-identical plots as the scatter function, much faster...
  2. Preallocation performance Preallocation is a standard Matlab speedup technique. Still, it has several undocumented aspects. ...
  3. Performance: accessing handle properties Handle object property access (get/set) performance can be significantly improved using dot-notation. ...
  4. Convolution performance Matlab's internal implementation of convolution can often be sped up significantly using the Convolution Theorem. ...
 
]]>
I would like to introduce guest blogger Ken Johnson, a MATLAB Connections partner specializing in electromagnetic optics simulation. Today Ken will explore some performance subtleties of zero testing in Matlab.

I often have a need to efficiently test a large Matlab array for any nonzero elements, e.g.

>> a = zeros(1e4);
>> tic, b = any(a(:)~=0); toc
Elapsed time is 0.126118 seconds.

Simple enough. In this case, when a is all-zero, the internal search algorithm has no choice but to inspect every element of the array to determine whether it contains any nonzeros. In the more typical case where a contains many nonzeros you would expect the search to terminate almost immediately, as soon as it finds the first nonzero. But that’s not how it works:

>> a = round(rand(1e4));
>> tic, b = any(a(:)~=0); toc
Elapsed time is 0.063404 seconds.

There is significant runtime overhead in constructing the logical array “a(:)~=0”, although the “any(…)” operation apparently terminates at the first true value it finds.

The overhead can be eliminated by taking advantage of the fact that numeric values may be used as logicals in Matlab, with zero implicitly representing false and nonzero representing true. Repeating the above test without “~=0”, we get a huge runtime improvement:

>> a = round(rand(1e4));
>> tic, b = any(a(:)); toc
Elapsed time is 0.000026 seconds.

However, there is no runtime benefit when a is all-zero:

>> a = zeros(1e4);
>> tic, b = any(a(:)); toc
Elapsed time is 0.125120 seconds.

(I do not quite understand this. There should be some runtime benefit from bypassing the logical array construction.)

NaN values

There is also another catch: The above efficiency trick does not work when a contains NaN values (if you consider NaN to be nonzero), e.g.

>> any([0,nan])
ans =
     0

The any function ignores entries that are NaN, meaning it treats NaNs as zero-equivalent. This is inconsistent with the behavior of the inequality operator:

>> any([0,nan]~=0)
ans =
     1

To avoid this problem, an explicit isnan test is needed. Efficiency is not impaired when a contains many nonzeros, but there is a 2x efficiency loss when a is all-zero:

>> a = round(rand(1e4));
>> tic, b = any(a(:)) || any(isnan(a(:))); toc
Elapsed time is 0.000027 seconds.
 
>> a = zeros(1e4);
>> tic, b = any(a(:)) || any(isnan(a(:))); toc
Elapsed time is 0.256604 seconds.

For testing all-nonzero the NaN problem does not occur:

>> all([1 nan])
ans =
     1

In this context NaN is treated as nonzero and the all-nonzero test is straightforward:

>> a = round(rand(1e4));
>> tic, b = all(a(:)); toc
Elapsed time is 0.000029 seconds.

For testing any-zero and all-zero, use the complements of the above tests:

>> b = ~any(a(:)) || any(isnan(a(:)));  % all zero?
>> b = ~all(a(:));  % any zero?

Efficient find

The find operation can also be optimized by bypassing construction of a logical temporary array, e.g.

>> a = round(rand(1e4));
>> tic, b = find(a(:)~=0, 1); toc
Elapsed time is 0.065697 seconds.
 
>> tic, b = find(a(:), 1); toc
Elapsed time is 0.000029 seconds.

There is no problem with NaNs in this case; the find function treats NaN as nonzero, e.g.

>> find([0,nan,1], 1)
ans =
     2
]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/zero-testing-performance/feed 5
AppDesigner’s mlapp file formathttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/appdesigner-mlapp-file-format http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/appdesigner-mlapp-file-format#comments Wed, 17 Aug 2016 17:00:04 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6613
 
Related posts:
  1. FIG files format FIG files are actually MAT files in disguise. This article explains how this can be useful in Matlab applications....
  2. MLintFailureFiles or: Why can’t I save my m-file?! Sometimes Matlab gets into a state where it cannot use a valid m-file. This article explains what can be done. ...
  3. Setting axes tick labels format Matlab plot axes ticks can be customized in a way that will automatically update whenever the tick values change. ...
  4. File deletion memory leaks, performance Matlab's delete function leaks memory and is also slower than the equivalent Java function. ...
 
]]>
Six years ago, I exposed the fact that *.fig files are simply MAT files in disguise. This information, in addition to the data format that I explained in that article, can help us to introspect and modify FIG files without having to actually display the figure onscreen.

Matlab has changed significantly since 2010, and one of the exciting new additions is the AppDesigner, Matlab’s new GUI layout designer/editor. Unfortunately, AppDesigner still has quite a few limitations in functionality and behavior. I expect that this will improve in upcoming releases since AppDesigner is undergoing active development. But in the meantime, it makes sense to see whether we could directly introspect and potentially manipulate AppDesigner’s output (*.mlapp files), as we could with GUIDE’s output (*.fig files).

A situation for checking this was recently raised by a reader on the Answers forum: apparently AppDesigner becomes increasingly sluggish when the figure’s code has more than a few hundred lines of code (i.e., a very simplistic GUI). In today’s post I intend to show how we can explore the resulting *.mlapp file, and possibly manipulate it in a text editor outside AppDesigner.

Matlab's new AppDesigner (a somewhat outdated screenshot)

Matlab's new AppDesigner (a somewhat outdated screenshot)


The MLAPP file format

Apparently, *.mlapp files are simply ZIP files in disguise (note: not MAT files as for *.fig files). A typical MLAPP’s zipped contents contains the following files (note that this might be a bit different on different Matlab releases):

  • [Content_Types].xml – this seems to be application-independent:
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="true"?>
    <Types xmlns="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/package/2006/content-types">
       <Default Extension="mat" ContentType="application/vnd.mathworks.matlab.appDesigner.appModel+mat"/>
       <Default Extension="rels" ContentType="application/vnd.openxmlformats-package.relationships+xml"/>
       <Default Extension="xml" ContentType="application/vnd.mathworks.matlab.code.document+xml;plaincode=true"/>
       <Override ContentType="application/vnd.openxmlformats-package.core-properties+xml" PartName="/metadata/coreProperties.xml"/>
       <Override ContentType="application/vnd.mathworks.package.coreProperties+xml" PartName="/metadata/mwcoreProperties.xml"/>
       <Override ContentType="application/vnd.mathworks.package.corePropertiesExtension+xml" PartName="/metadata/mwcorePropertiesExtension.xml"/>
    </Types>
  • _rels/.rels – also application-independent:
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="true"?>
    <Relationships xmlns="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/package/2006/relationships">
       <Relationship Type="http://schemas.mathworks.com/matlab/code/2013/relationships/document" Target="matlab/document.xml" Id="rId1"/>
       <Relationship Type="http://schemas.mathworks.com/package/2012/relationships/coreProperties" Target="metadata/mwcoreProperties.xml" Id="rId2"/>
       <Relationship Type="http://schemas.mathworks.com/package/2014/relationships/corePropertiesExtension" Target="metadata/mwcorePropertiesExtension.xml" Id="rId3"/>
       <Relationship Type="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/package/2006/relationships/metadata/core-properties" Target="metadata/coreProperties.xml" Id="rId4"/>
       <Relationship Type="http://schemas.mathworks.com/appDesigner/app/2014/relationships/appModel" Target="appdesigner/appModel.mat" Id="rId5"/>
    </Relationships>
  • metadata/coreProperties.xml – contains the timestamp of figure creation and last update:
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="true"?>
    <cp:coreProperties xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:dcmitype="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:cp="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/package/2006/metadata/core-properties">
       <dcterms:created xsi:type="dcterms:W3CDTF">2016-08-01T18:20:26Z</dcterms:created>
       <dcterms:modified xsi:type="dcterms:W3CDTF">2016-08-01T18:20:27Z</dcterms:modified>
    </cp:coreProperties>
  • metadata/mwcoreProperties.xml – contains information on the generating Matlab release:
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="true"?>
    <mwcoreProperties xmlns="http://schemas.mathworks.com/package/2012/coreProperties">
       <contentType>application/vnd.mathworks.matlab.app</contentType>
       <contentTypeFriendlyName>MATLAB App</contentTypeFriendlyName>
       <matlabRelease>R2016a</matlabRelease>
    </mwcoreProperties>
  • metadata/mwcorePropertiesExtension.xml – more information about the generating Matlab release. Note that the version number is not exactly the same as the main Matlab version number: here we have 9.0.0.328027 whereas the main Matlab version number is 9.0.0.341360. I do not know whether this is checked anywhere.
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="true"?>
    <mwcoreProperties xmlns="http://schemas.mathworks.com/package/2014/corePropertiesExtension">
       <matlabVersion>9.0.0.328027</matlabVersion>
    </mwcoreProperties>
  • appdesigner/appModel.mat – This is a simple MAT file that holds a single Matlab object called “appData” (of type appdesigner.internal.serialization.app.AppData) the information about the uifigure, similar in concept to the *.fig files generated by the old GUIDE:
    >> d = load('C:\Yair\App3\appdesigner\appModel.mat')
    Warning: Functionality not supported with figures created with the uifigure function. For more information,
    see Graphics Support in App Designer.
    (Type "warning off MATLAB:ui:uifigure:UnsupportedAppDesignerFunctionality" to suppress this warning.)
     
    d = 
        appData: [1x1 appdesigner.internal.serialization.app.AppData]
     
    >> d.appData
    ans = 
      AppData with properties:
     
          UIFigure: [1x1 Figure]
          CodeData: [1x1 appdesigner.internal.codegeneration.model.CodeData]
          Metadata: [1x1 appdesigner.internal.serialization.app.AppMetadata]
        ToolboxVer: '2016a'
     
    >> d.appData.CodeData
    ans = 
      CodeData with properties:
     
        GeneratedClassName: 'App3'
                 Callbacks: [0x0 appdesigner.internal.codegeneration.model.AppCallback]
                StartupFcn: [1x1 appdesigner.internal.codegeneration.model.AppCallback]
           EditableSection: [1x1 appdesigner.internal.codegeneration.model.CodeSection]
                ToolboxVer: '2016a'
     
    >> d.appData.Metadata
    ans = 
      AppMetadata with properties:
     
        GroupHierarchy: {}
            ToolboxVer: '2016a'
  • matlab/document.xml – this file contains a copy of the figure’s classdef code in plain-text XML:
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <w:document xmlns:w="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/wordprocessingml/2006/main">
       <w:body>
          <w:p>
             <w:pPr>
                <w:pStyle w:val="code"/>
             </w:pPr>
             <w:r>
                <w:t>
                   <![CDATA[classdef App2 < matlab.apps.AppBase % Properties that correspond to app components properties (Access = public) UIFigure matlab.ui.Figure UIAxes matlab.ui.control.UIAxes Button matlab.ui.control.Button CheckBox matlab.ui.control.CheckBox ListBoxLabel matlab.ui.control.Label ListBox matlab.ui.control.ListBox end methods (Access = public) function results = func(app) % Yair 1/8/2016 end end % App initialization and construction methods (Access = private) % Create UIFigure and components function createComponents(app) % Create UIFigure app.UIFigure = uifigure; app.UIFigure.Position = [100 100 640 480]; app.UIFigure.Name = 'UI Figure'; setAutoResize(app, app.UIFigure, true) % Create UIAxes app.UIAxes = uiaxes(app.UIFigure); title(app.UIAxes, 'Axes'); xlabel(app.UIAxes, 'X'); ylabel(app.UIAxes, 'Y'); app.UIAxes.Position = [23 273 300 185]; % Create Button app.Button = uibutton(app.UIFigure, 'push'); app.Button.Position = [491 378 100 22]; % Create CheckBox app.CheckBox = uicheckbox(app.UIFigure); app.CheckBox.Position = [491 304 76 15]; % Create ListBoxLabel app.ListBoxLabel = uilabel(app.UIFigure); app.ListBoxLabel.HorizontalAlignment = 'right'; app.ListBoxLabel.Position = [359 260 43 15]; app.ListBoxLabel.Text = 'List Box'; % Create ListBox app.ListBox = uilistbox(app.UIFigure); app.ListBox.Position = [417 203 100 74]; end end methods (Access = public) % Construct app function app = App2() % Create and configure components createComponents(app) % Register the app with App Designer registerApp(app, app.UIFigure) if nargout == 0 clear app end end % Code that executes before app deletion function delete(app) % Delete UIFigure when app is deleted delete(app.UIFigure) end end end]]>
                </w:t>
             </w:r>
          </w:p>
       </w:body>
    </w:document>

I do not know why the code is duplicated, both in document.xml and (twice!) in appModel.mat. On the face of it, this does not seem to be a wise design decision.

Editing MLAPP files outside AppDesigner

We can presumably edit the app in an external editor as follow:

  1. Open the *.mlapp file in your favorite zip viewer (e.g., winzip or winrar). You may need to rename/copy the file as *.zip.
  2. Edit the contents of the contained matlab/document.xml file in your favorite text editor (Matlab’s editor for example)
  3. Load appdesigner/appModel.mat into Matlab workspace.
  4. Go to appData.CodeData.EditableSection.Code and update the cell array with the lines of your updated code (one cell element per user-code line).
  5. Do the same with appData.CodeData.GeneratedCode (if existing), which holds the same data as appData.CodeData.EditableSection.Code but also including the AppDesigner-generated [non-editable] code.
  6. Save the modified appData struct back into appdesigner/appModel.mat
  7. Update the zip file (*.mlapp) with the updated appModel.mat and document.xml

In theory, it is enough to extract the classdef code and same it in a simple *.m file, but then you would not be able to continue using AppDesigner to make layout modifications, and you would need to make all the changes manually in the m-file. If you wish to continue using AppDesigner after you modified the code, then you need to save it back into the *.mlapp file as explained above.

If you think this is not worth all the effort, then you’re probably right. But you must admit that it’s a bit fun to poke around…

One day maybe I’ll create wrapper utilities (mlapp2m and m2mlapp) that do all this automatically, in both directions. Or maybe one of my readers here will pick up the glove and do it sooner – are you up for the challenge?

Caveat Emptor

Note that the MLAPP file format is deeply undocumented and subject to change without prior notice in upcoming Matlab releases. In fact, MathWorker Chris Portal warns us that:

A word of caution for anyone that tries this undocumented/unsupported poking into their MLAPP file. Taking this approach will almost certainly guarantee your app to not load in one of the subsequent releases. Just something to consider in your off-roading expedition!

Then again, the same could have been said about the FIG and other binary file formats used by Matlab, which remained essentially the same for the past decade: Some internal field values may have changed but not the general format, and in any case the newer releases still accept files created with previous releases. For this reason, I speculate that future AppDesigners will accept MLAPP files created by older releases, possibly even hand-modified MLAPP files. Perhaps a CRC hash code of some sort will be expected, but I believe that any MLAPP that we modify today will still work in future releases. However, I could well be mistaken, so please be very careful with this knowledge. I trust that you can make up your own mind about whether it is worth the risk (and fun) or not.

AppDesigner is destined to gradually replace the aging GUIDE over the upcoming years. They currently coexist since AppDesigner (and its web-based uifigures) still does not contain all the functionality that GUIDE (and JFrame-based figures) provides (a few examples). I already posted a few short posts about AppDesigner (use the AppDesigner tag to list them), and today’s article is another in that series. Over the next few years I intend to publish more on AppDesigner and its associated new GUI framework (uifigures).

Zurich visit, 21-31 Aug 2016

I will be traveling to Zürich for a business trip between August 21-31. If you are in the Zürich area and wish to meet me to discuss how I could bring value to your work, then please email me (altmany at gmail).

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/appdesigner-mlapp-file-format/feed 5
Customizing axes part 5 – origin crossover and labelshttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/customizing-axes-part-5-origin-crossover-and-labels http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/customizing-axes-part-5-origin-crossover-and-labels#comments Wed, 27 Jul 2016 17:00:02 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6564
 
Related posts:
  1. Customizing axes part 2 Matlab HG2 axes can be customized in many different ways. This article explains some of the undocumented aspects. ...
  2. Customizing axes rulers HG2 axes can be customized in numerous useful ways. This article explains how to customize the rulers. ...
  3. Customizing axes part 3 – Backdrop Matlab HG2 axes can be customized in many different ways. This article explains some of the undocumented aspects. ...
  4. Customizing axes part 4 – additional properties Matlab HG2 axes can be customized in many different ways. This article explains some of the undocumented aspects. ...
 
]]>
When HG2 graphics was finally released in R2014b, I posted a series of articles about various undocumented ways by which we can customize Matlab’s new graphic axes: rulers (axles), baseline, box-frame, grid, back-drop, and other aspects. Today I extend this series by showing how we can customize the axes rulers’ crossover location.

Non-default axes crossover location

Non-default axes crossover location


The documented/supported stuff

Until R2015b, we could only specify the axes’ YAxisLocation as 'left' (default) or 'right', and XAxisLocation as 'bottom' (default) or 'top'. For example:

x = -2*pi : .01 : 2*pi;
plot(x, sin(x));
hAxis = gca;
hAxis.YAxisLocation = 'left';    % 'left' (default) or 'right'
hAxis.XAxisLocation = 'bottom';  % 'bottom' (default) or 'top'

Default axis locations: axes crossover is non-fixed

Default axis locations: axes crossover is non-fixed

The crossover location is non-fixed in the sense that if we zoom or pan the plot, the axes crossover will remain at the bottom-left corner, which changes its coordinates depending on the X and Y axes limits.

Since R2016a, we can also specify 'origin' for either of these properties, such that the X and/or Y axes pass through the chart origin (0,0) location. For example, move the YAxisLocation to the origin:

hAxis.YAxisLocation = 'origin';

Y-axis location at origin: axes crossover at 0 (fixed), -1 (non-fixed)

Y-axis location at origin: axes crossover at 0 (fixed), -1 (non-fixed)

And similarly also for XAxisLocation:

hAxis.XAxisLocation = 'origin';

X and Y-axis location at origin: axes crossover fixed at (0,0)

X and Y-axis location at origin: axes crossover fixed at (0,0)

The axes crossover location is now fixed at the origin (0,0), so as we move or pan the plot, the crossover location changes its position in the chart area, without changing its coordinates. This functionality has existed in other graphic packages (outside Matlab) for a long time and until now required quite a bit of coding to emulate in Matlab, so I’m glad that we now have it in Matlab by simply updating a single property value. MathWorks did a very nice job here of dynamically updating the axles, ticks and labels as we pan (drag) the plot towards the edges – try it out!

The undocumented juicy stuff

So far for the documented stuff. The undocumented aspect is that we are not limited to using the (0,0) origin point as the fixed axes crossover location. We can use any x,y crossover location, using the FirstCrossoverValue property of the axes’ hidden XRuler and YRuler properties. In fact, we could do this since R2014b, when the new HG2 graphics engine was released, not just starting in R2016a!

% Set a fixed crossover location of (pi/2,-0.4)
hAxis.YRuler.FirstCrossoverValue = pi/2;
hAxis.XRuler.FirstCrossoverValue = -0.4;

Custom fixed axes crossover location at (π/2,-0.4)

Custom fixed axes crossover location at (π/2,-0.4)

For some reason (bug?), setting XAxisLocation/YAxisLocation to ‘origin’ has no visible effect in 3D plots, nor is there any corresponding ZAxisLocation property. Luckily, we can set the axes crossover location(s) in 3D plots using FirstCrossoverValue just as easily as for 2D plots. The rulers also have a SecondCrossoverValue property (default = -inf) that controls the Z-axis crossover, as Yaroslav pointed out in a comment below. For example:

N = 49;
x = linspace(-10,10,N);
M = peaks(N);
mesh(x,x,M);

Default crossover locations at (-10,±10,-10)

Default crossover locations at (-10,±10,-10)

hAxis.XRuler.FirstCrossoverValue  = 0; % X crossover with Y axis
hAxis.YRuler.FirstCrossoverValue  = 0; % Y crossover with X axis
hAxis.ZRuler.FirstCrossoverValue  = 0; % Z crossover with X axis
hAxis.ZRuler.SecondCrossoverValue = 0; % Z crossover with Y axis

Custom fixed axes crossover location at (0,0,-10)

Custom fixed axes crossover location at (0,0,-10)

hAxis.XRuler.SecondCrossoverValue = 0; % X crossover with Z axis
hAxis.YRuler.SecondCrossoverValue = 0; % Y crossover with Z axis

Custom fixed axes crossover location at (0,0,0)

Custom fixed axes crossover location at (0,0,0)

Labels

Users will encounter the following unexpected behavior (bug?) when using either the documented *AxisLocation or the undocumented FirstCrossoverValue properties: when setting an x-label (using the xlabel function, or the internal axes properties), the label moves from the center of the axes (as happens when XAxisLocation=’top’ or ‘bottom’) to the right side of the axes, where the secondary label (e.g., exponent) usually appears, whereas the secondary label is moved to the left side of the axis:

Unexpected label positions

Unexpected label positions

In such cases, we would expect the labels locations to be reversed, with the main label on the left and the secondary label in its customary location on the right. The exact same situation occurs with the Y labels, where the main label unexpectedly appears at the top and the secondary at the bottom. Hopefully MathWorks will fix this in the next release (it is probably too late to make it into R2016b, but hopefully R2017a). Until then, we can simply switch the strings of the main and secondary label to make them appear at the expected locations:

% Switch the Y-axes labels:
ylabel(hAxis, '\times10^{3}');  % display secondary ylabel (x10^3) at top
set(hAxis.YRuler.SecondaryLabel, 'Visible','on', 'String','main y-label');  % main label at bottom
 
% Switch the X-axes labels:
xlabel(hAxis, '2^{nd} label');  % display secondary xlabel at right
set(hAxis.XRuler.SecondaryLabel, 'Visible','on', 'String','xlabel');  % main label at left

As can be seen from the screenshot, there’s an additional nuisance: the main label appears a bit larger than the axes font size (the secondary label uses the correct font size). This is because by default Matlab uses a 110% font-size for the main axes label, ostensibly to make them stand out. We can modify this default factor using the rulers’ hidden LabelFontSizeMultiplier property (default=1.1). For example:

hAxis.YRuler.LabelFontSizeMultiplier = 1;   % use 100% font-size (same as tick labels)
hAxis.XRuler.LabelFontSizeMultiplier = 0.8; % use 80% (smaller than standard) font-size

Note: I described the ruler objects in my first article of the axes series. Feel free to read it for more ideas on customizing the axes rulers.

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/customizing-axes-part-5-origin-crossover-and-labels/feed 5
Customizing uifigures part 1http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/customizing-uifigures-part-1 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/customizing-uifigures-part-1#comments Thu, 21 Jul 2016 10:32:51 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6554
 
Related posts:
  1. Customizing uifigures part 2 Matlab's new web-based uifigures can be customized using custom CSS and Javascript code. ...
  2. Customizing uiundo This article describes how Matlab's undocumented uiundo undo/redo manager can be customized...
  3. Customizing print setup Matlab figures print-setup can be customized to automatically prepare the figure for printing in a specific configuration...
  4. Customizing axes part 4 – additional properties Matlab HG2 axes can be customized in many different ways. This article explains some of the undocumented aspects. ...
 
]]>
Last month, I posted an article that summarized a variety of undocumented customizations to Matlab figure windows. As I noted in that post, Matlab figures have used Java JFrames as their underlying technology since R14 (over a decade ago), but this is expected to change a few years from now with the advent of web-based uifigures. uifigures first became available in late 2014 with the new App Designer preview (the much-awaited GUIDE replacement), and were officially released in R2016a. AppDesigner is actively being developed and we should expect to see exciting new features in upcoming Matlab releases.

Matlab's new AppDesigner (a somewhat outdated screenshot)

Matlab's new AppDesigner (a somewhat outdated screenshot)

However, while AppDesigner has become officially supported, the underlying technology used for the new uifigures remained undocumented. This is not surprising: MathWorks did a good job of retaining backward compatibility with the existing figure handle, and so a new uifigure returns a handle that programmatically appears similar to figure handles, reducing the migration cost when MathWorks decides (presumably around 2018-2020) that web-based (rather than Java-based) figures should become the default figure type. By keeping the underlying figure technology undocumented and retaining the documented top-level behavior (properties and methods of the figure handle), Matlab users who only use the documented interface should expect a relatively smooth transition at that time.

So does this mean that users who start using AppDesigner today (and especially in a few years when web figures become the default) can no longer enjoy the benefits of figure-based customization offered to the existing Java-based figure users (which I listed in last month’s post)? Absolutely not! All we need is to get a hook into the uifigure‘s underlying object and then we can start having fun.

The uifigure Controller

One way to do this is to use the uifigure handle’s hidden (private) Controller property (a matlab.ui.internal.controller.FigureController MCOS object whose source-code appears in %matlabroot%/toolbox/matlab/uitools/uicomponents/components/+matlab/+ui/+internal/+controller/).

Controller is not only a hidden but also a private property of the figure handle, so we cannot simply use the get function to get its value. This doesn’t stop us of course: We can get the controller object using either my getundoc utility or the builtin struct function (which returns private/protected properties as an undocumented feature):

>> hFig = uifigure('Name','Yair', ...);
 
>> figProps = struct(hFig);  % or getundoc(hFig)
Warning: Calling STRUCT on an object prevents the object from hiding its implementation details and should thus be
avoided. Use DISP or DISPLAY to see the visible public details of an object. See 'help struct' for more information.
(Type "warning off MATLAB:structOnObject" to suppress this warning.)
 
Warning: figure JavaFrame property will be obsoleted in a future release. For more information see
the JavaFrame resource on the MathWorks web site.
(Type "warning off MATLAB:HandleGraphics:ObsoletedProperty:JavaFrame" to suppress this warning.)
 
figProps = 
                      JavaFrame: []
                    JavaFrame_I: []
                       Position: [87 40 584 465]
                   PositionMode: 'auto'
                            ...
                     Controller: [1x1 matlab.ui.internal.controller.FigureController]
                 ControllerMode: 'auto'
                            ...
 
>> figProps.Controller
ans = 
  FigureController with properties:
 
       Canvas: []
    ProxyView: [1x1 struct]
 
>> figProps.Controller.ProxyView
ans = 
            PeerNode: [1x1 com.mathworks.peermodel.impl.PeerNodeImpl]
    PeerModelManager: [1x1 com.mathworks.peermodel.impl.PeerModelManagerImpl]
 
>> struct(figProps.Controller)
Warning: Calling STRUCT on an object prevents the object from hiding its implementation details and should thus be
avoided. Use DISP or DISPLAY to see the visible public details of an object. See 'help struct' for more information.
(Type "warning off MATLAB:structOnObject" to suppress this warning.)
 
ans = 
               PositionListener: [1x1 event.listener]
    ContainerPositionCorrection: [1 1 0 0]
                      Container: [1x1 matlab.ui.internal.controller.FigureContainer]
                         Canvas: []
                  IsClientReady: 1
              PeerEventListener: [1x1 handle.listener]
                      ProxyView: [1x1 struct]
                          Model: [1x1 Figure]
               ParentController: [0x0 handle]
      PropertyManagementService: [1x1 matlab.ui.internal.componentframework.services.core.propertymanagement.PropertyManagementService]
          IdentificationService: [1x1 matlab.ui.internal.componentframework.services.core.identification.WebIdentificationService]
           EventHandlingService: [1x1 matlab.ui.internal.componentframework.services.core.eventhandling.WebEventHandlingService]

I will discuss all the goodies here in a future post (if you are curious then feel free to start drilling in there yourself, I promise it won’t bite you…). However, today I wish to concentrate on more immediate benefits from a different venue:

The uifigure webwindow

uifigures are basically webpages rather than desktop windows (JFrames). They use an entirely different UI mechanism, based on HTML webpages served from a localhost webserver that runs CEF (Chromium Embedded Framework version 3.2272 on Chromium 41 in R2016a). This runs the so-called CEF client (apparently an adaptation of the CefClient sample application that comes with CEF; the relevant Matlab source-code is in %matlabroot%/toolbox/matlab/cefclient/). It uses the DOJO Javascript toolkit for UI controls visualization and interaction, rather than Java Swing as in the existing JFrame figures. I still don’t know if there is a way to combine the seemingly disparate sets of GUIs (namely adding Java-based controls to web-based figures or vice-versa).

Anyway, the important thing to note for my purposes today is that when a new uifigure is created, the above-mentioned Controller object is created, which in turn creates a new matlab.internal.webwindow. The webwindow class (%matlabroot%/toolbox/matlab/cefclient/+matlab/+internal/webwindow.m) is well-documented and easy to follow (although the non camel-cased class name escaped someone’s attention), and allows access to several important figure-level customizations.

The figure’s webwindow reference can be accessed via the Controller‘s Container‘s CEF property:

>> hFig = uifigure('Name','Yair', ...);
>> warning off MATLAB:structOnObject      % suppress warning (yes, we know it's naughty...)
>> figProps = struct(hFig);
 
>> controller = figProps.Controller;      % Controller is a private hidden property of Figure
>> controllerProps = struct(controller);
 
>> container = controllerProps.Container  % Container is a private hidden property of FigureController
container = 
  FigureContainer with properties:
 
    FigurePeerNode: [1x1 com.mathworks.peermodel.impl.PeerNodeImpl]
         Resizable: 1
          Position: [86 39 584 465]
               Tag: ''
             Title: 'Yair'
              Icon: 'C:\Program Files\Matlab\R2016a\toolbox\matlab\uitools\uicomponents\resources\images…'
           Visible: 1
               URL: 'http://localhost:31417/toolbox/matlab/uitools/uifigureappjs/componentContainer.html…'
              HTML: 'toolbox/matlab/uitools/uifigureappjs/componentContainer.html'
     ConnectorPort: 31417
         DebugPort: 0
     IsWindowValid: 1
 
>> win = container.CEF   % CEF is a regular (public) hidden property of FigureContainer
win = 
  webwindow with properties:
 
                             URL: 'http://localhost:31417/toolbox/matlab/uitools/uifigureappjs/component…'
                           Title: 'Yair'
                            Icon: 'C:\Program Files\Matlab\R2016a\toolbox\matlab\uitools\uicomponents\re…'
                        Position: [86 39 584 465]
     CustomWindowClosingCallback: @(o,e)this.Model.hgclose()
    CustomWindowResizingCallback: @(event,data)resizeRequest(this,event,data)
                  WindowResizing: []
                   WindowResized: []
                     FocusGained: []
                       FocusLost: []
                DownloadCallback: []
        PageLoadFinishedCallback: []
           MATLABClosingCallback: []
      MATLABWindowExitedCallback: []
             PopUpWindowCallback: []
             RemoteDebuggingPort: 0
                      CEFVersion: '3.2272.2072'
                 ChromiumVersion: '41.0.2272.76'
                   isWindowValid: 1
               isDownloadingFile: 0
                         isModal: 0
                  isWindowActive: 1
                   isAlwaysOnTop: 0
                     isAllActive: 1
                     isResizable: 1
                         MaxSize: []
                         MinSize: []
 
>> win.URL
ans =
http://localhost:31417/toolbox/matlab/uitools/uifigureappjs/componentContainer.html?channel=/uicontainer/393ed66a-5e34-41f3-8ac0-0b0f3b0738cd&snc=5C2353

An alternative way to get the webwindow is via the list of all webwindows stored by a central webwindowmanager:

webWindows = matlab.internal.webwindowmanager.instance.findAllWebwindows();  % manager method returning an array of all open webwindows
webWindows = matlab.internal.webwindowmanager.instance.windowList;           % equivalent alternative via manager's windowList property

Note that the controller, container and webwindow class objects, like most Matlab MCOS objects, have internal (hidden) properties/methods that you can explore. For example:

>> getundoc(win)
ans = 
                   Channel: [1x1 asyncio.Channel]
       CustomEventListener: [1x1 event.listener]
           InitialPosition: [100 100 600 400]
    JavaScriptReturnStatus: []
     JavaScriptReturnValue: []
     NewWindowBeingCreated: 0
          NewWindowCreated: 1
           UpdatedPosition: [86 39 584 465]
              WindowHandle: 2559756
                    newURL: 'http://localhost:31417/toolbox/matlab/uitools/uifigureappjs/componentContai…'

Using webwindow for figure-level customizations

We can use the methods of this webwindow object as follows:

win.setAlwaysOnTop(true);   % always on top of other figure windows (a.k.a. AOT)
 
win.hide();
win.show();
win.bringToFront();
 
win.minimize();
win.maximize();
win.restore();
 
win.setMaxSize([400,600]);  % enables resizing up to this size but not larger (default=[])
win.setMinSize([200,300]);  % enables resizing down to this size but not smaller (default=[])
win.setResizable(false);
 
win.setWindowAsModal(true);
 
win.setActivateCurrentWindow(false);  % disable interaction with this entire window
win.setActivateAllWindows(false);     % disable interaction with *ALL* uifigure (but not Java-based) windows
 
result = win.executeJS(jsStr, timeout);  % run JavaScript

In addition to these methods, we can set callback functions to various callbacks exposed by the webwindow as regular properties (too bad that some of their names [like the class name itself] don’t follow Matlab’s standard naming convention, in this case by appending “Fcn” or “Callback”):

win.FocusGained = @someCallbackFunc;
win.FocusLost = @anotherCallbackFunc;

In summary, while the possible customizations to Java-based figure windows are more extensive, the webwindow methods appear to cover most of the important ones. Since these functionalities (maximize/minimize, AOT, disable etc.) are now common to both the Java and web-based figures, I really hope that MathWorks will create fully-documented figure properties/methods for them. Now that there is no longer any question whether these features will be supported by the future technology, and since there is no question as to their usefulness, there is really no reason not to officially support them in both figure types. If you feel the same as I do, please let MathWorks know about this – if enough people request this, MathWorks will be more likely to add these features to one of the upcoming Matlab releases.

Warning: the internal implementation is subject to change across releases, so be careful to make your code cross-release compatible whenever you rely on one of Matlab’s internal objects.

Note that I labeled this post as “part 1” – I expect to post additional articles on uifigure customizations in upcoming years.

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/customizing-uifigures-part-1/feed 4
Listbox selection hackshttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/listbox-selection-hacks http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/listbox-selection-hacks#comments Wed, 13 Jul 2016 15:36:19 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6534
 
Related posts:
  1. Setting listbox mouse actions Matlab listbox uicontrol can be modified to detect mouse events for right-click context menus, dynamic tooltips etc....
  2. Listbox layout customization Matlab's listbox layout can be modified to display multiple item columns and different inter-cell margins. ...
  3. Customizing listbox/combobox items Matlab listboxes can be customized using custom Java cell-renderers. ...
  4. Smart listbox & editbox scrollbars Matlab listbox and multi-line editbox scrollbars can easily be made smarter, for improved appearance. ...
 
]]>
Last week a reader on the CSSM newsgroup asked whether it is possible to programmatically deselect all listbox items. By default, Matlab listboxes enable a single item selection: trying to deselect it interactively has no effect, while trying to set the listbox’s Value property to empty ([]) results in the listbox disappearing and a warning issued to the Matlab console:

Single-selection Matlab listbox

>> hListbox = uicontrol('Style','list', 'String',{'item #1','item #2','item #3','item #4','item #5','item #6'});
>> set(hListbox,'Value',[]);
Warning: Single-selection 'listbox' control requires a scalar Value.
Control will not be rendered until all of its parameter values are valid
(Type "warning off MATLAB:hg:uicontrol:ValueMustBeScalar" to suppress this warning.)

The reader’s question was whether there is a way to bypass this limitation so that no listbox item will be selected. The answer to this question was provided by MathWorker Steve(n) Lord. Steve is a very long-time benefactor of the Matlab community with endless, tireless, and patient advise to queries small and large (way beyond the point that would have frustrated mere mortals). Steve pointed out that by default, Matlab listboxes only enable a single selection – not more and not less. However, when the listbox’s Max value is set to be >1, the listbox enables multiple-items selection, meaning that Value accepts and reports an array of item indices, and there is nothing that prevents this array from being empty (meaning no items selected):

>> hListbox = uicontrol('Style','list', 'Max',2, 'String',{'item #1','item #2','item #3','item #4','item #5','item #6'});
>> set(hListbox,'Value',[]);  % this is ok - listbox appears with no items selected

Note: actually, the listbox checks the value of MaxMin, but by default Min=0 and there is really no reason to modify this default value, just Max.

While this makes sense if you think about it, the existing documentation makes no mention of this fact:

The Max property value helps determine whether the user can select multiple items in the list box simultaneously. If Max – Min > 1, then the user can select multiple items simultaneously. Otherwise, the user cannot select multiple items simultaneously. If you set the Max and Min properties to allow multiple selections, then the Value property value can be a vector of indices.

Some readers might think that this feature is not really undocumented, since it does not directly conflict with the documentation text, but then so are many other undocumented aspects and features on this blog, which are not mentioned anywhere in the official documentation. I contend that if this feature is officially supported, then it deserves an explicit sentence in the official documentation.

However, the original CSSM reader wanted to preserve Matlab’s single-selection model while enabling deselection of an item. Basically, the reader wanted a selection model that enables 0 or 1 selections, but not 2 or more. This requires some tweaking using the listbox’s selection callback:

set(hListbox,'Callback',@myCallbackFunc);
 
...
function test(hListbox, eventData)
   value = get(hListbox, 'Value');
   if numel(value) > 1
       set(hListbox, 'Value', value(1));
   end
end

…or a callback-function version that is a bit better because it takes the previous selection into account and tries to set the new selection to the latest-selected item (this works in most cases, but not with shift-clicks as explained below):

function myCallbackFunc(hListbox, eventData)
   lastValue = getappdata(hListbox, 'lastValue');
   value = get(hListbox, 'Value');
   if ~isequal(value, lastValue)
      value2 = setdiff(value, lastValue);
      if isempty(value2)
         setappdata(hListbox, 'lastValue', value);
      else
         value = value2(1);  % see quirk below
         setappdata(hListbox, 'lastValue', value);
         set(hListbox, 'Value', value);
      end
   end
end

This does the job of enabling only a single selection at the same time as allowing the user to interactively deselect that item (by ctrl-clicking it).

There’s just a few quirks: If the user selects a block of items (using shift-click), then only the second-from-top item in the block is selected, rather than the expected last-selected item. This is due to line #9 in the callback code which selects the first value. Matlab does not provide us with information about which item was clicked, so this cannot be helped using pure Matlab. Another quirk that cannot easily be solved using pure Matlab is the flicker that occurs when the selection changes and is then corrected by the callback.

We can solve both of these problems using the listbox’s underlying Java component, which we can retrieve using my findjobj utility:

% No need for the standard Matlab callback now
set(hListbox,'Callback',[]);
 
% Get the underlying Java component peer
jScrollPane = findjobj(h);
jListbox = jScrollPane.getViewport.getView;
jListbox = handle(jListbox,'CallbackProperties');  % enable callbacks
 
% Attach our callback to the listbox's Java peer
jListbox.ValueChangedCallback = {@myCallbackFunc, hListbox};
 
...
function myCallbackFunc(jListbox, eventData, hListbox)
   if numel(jListbox.getSelectedIndices) > 1
      set(hListbox, 'Value', jListbox.getLeadSelectionIndex+1);  % +1 because Java indices start at 0
   end
end

We can use a similar mechanism to control other aspects of selection, for example to enable only up to 3 selections but no more etc.

We can use this underlying Java component peer for a few other useful selection-related hacks: First, we can use the peer’s RightSelectionEnabled property or setRightSelectionEnabled() method to enable the user to select by right-clicking listbox items (this is disabled by default):

jListbox.setRightSelectionEnabled(true);  % false by default
set(jListbox,'RightSelectionEnabled',true);  % equivalent alternative

A similarly useful property is DragSelectionEnabled (or the corresponding setDragSelectionEnabled() method), which is true by default, and controls whether the selection is extended to other items when the mouse drags an item up or down the listbox.

Finally, we can control whether in multi-selection mode we enable the user to only select a single contiguous block of items, or not (which is Matlab’s default behavior). This is set via the SelectionMode property (or associated setSelectionMode() method), as follows:

jListbox.setSelectionMode(javax.swing.ListSelectionModel.SINGLE_INTERVAL_SELECTION);
jListbox.setSelectionMode(1);  % equivalent alternative (less maintainable/readable, but simpler)

SINGLE_SELECTION (default for Max=1)SINGLE_INTERVAL_SELECTION (only possible with Java)MULTIPLE_INTERVAL_SELECTION (default for Max>1)
SINGLE_SELECTION =0SINGLE_INTERVAL_SELECTION =1MULTIPLE_INTERVAL_SELECTION =2
(Matlab default for Max=1)(only possible with Java)(Matlab default for Max>1)

Additional listbox customizations can be found in related posts on this blog (see links below), or in section 6.6 of my Matlab-Java Programming Secrets book (which is still selling nicely almost five years after its publication, to the pleasant surprise of my publisher…).

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/listbox-selection-hacks/feed 4
A few parfor tipshttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/a-few-parfor-tips http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/a-few-parfor-tips#comments Wed, 06 Jul 2016 16:29:21 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6516
 
Related posts:
  1. Quirks with parfor vs. for Parallelizing loops with Matlab's parfor might generate unexpected results. Users beware! ...
  2. Controlling plot data-tips Data-tips are an extremely useful plotting tool that can easily be controlled programmatically....
  3. Some performance-tuning tips Matlab can be made to run much faster using some simple optimization techniques. ...
  4. Draggable plot data-tips Matlab's standard plot data-tips can be customized to enable dragging, without being limitted to be adjacent to their data-point. ...
 
]]>
Matlab Expo 2016 keynote presentation

Matlab Expo 2016 keynote presentation

A few days ago, MathWorks uploaded a video recording of my recent keynote presentation at the Matlab Expo 2016 in Munich, Germany. During the presentation, I skimmed over a few tips for improving performance of parallel-processing (parfor) loops. In today’s post I plan to expand on these tips, as well as provide a few others that for lack of space and time I did not mention in the presentation.

The overall effect can be dramatic: The performance (speed) difference between a sub-optimal and optimized parfor‘ed code can be up to a full order of magnitude, depending on the specific situation. Naturally, to use any of today’s tips, you need to have MathWorks’ Parallel Computing Toolbox (PCT).

Before diving into the technical details, let me say that MathWorks has extensive documentation on PCT. In today’s post I will try not to reiterate the official tips, but rather those that I have not found mentioned elsewhere, and/or are not well-known (my apologies in advance if I missed an official mention of one or more of the following). Furthermore, I limit myself only to parfor in this post: much can be said about spmd, GPU and other parallel constructs, but not today.

parpool(numCores)

The first tip is to not [always] use the default number of workers created by parpool (or matlabpool in R2013a or earlier). By default, Matlab creates as many workers as logical CPU cores. On Intel CPUs, the OS reports two logical cores per each physical core due to hyper-threading, for a total of 4 workers on a dual-core machine. However, in many situations, hyperthreading does not improve the performance of a program and may even degrade it (I deliberately wish to avoid the heated debate over this: you can find endless discussions about it online and decide for yourself). Coupled with the non-negligible overhead of starting, coordinating and communicating with twice as many Matlab instances (workers are headless [=GUI-less] Matlab processes after all), we reach a conclusion that it may actually be better in many cases to use only as many workers as physical (not logical) cores.

I know the documentation and configuration panel seem to imply that parpool uses the number of physical cores by default, but in my tests I have seen otherwise (namely, logical cores). Maybe this is system-dependent, and maybe there is a switch somewhere that controls this, I don’t know. I just know that in many cases I found it beneficial to reduce the number of workers to the actual number of physical cores:

p = parpool;     % use as many workers as logical CPUs (4 on my poor laptop...)
p = parpool(2);  % use only 2 parallel workers

Of course, this can vary greatly across programs and platforms, so you should test carefully on your specific setup. I suspect that for the majority of Matlab programs it would turn out that using the number of physical cores is better.

It would of course be better to dynamically retrieve the number of physical cores, rather than hard-coding a constant value (number of workers) into our program. We can get this value in Matlab using the undocumented feature(‘numcores’) function:

numCores = feature('numcores');
p = parpool(numCores);

Running feature(‘numcores’) without assigning its output displays some general debugging information:

>> feature('numcores')
MATLAB detected: 2 physical cores.
MATLAB detected: 4 logical cores.
MATLAB was assigned: 4 logical cores by the OS.
MATLAB is using: 2 logical cores.
MATLAB is not using all logical cores because hyper-threading is enabled.
ans =
     2

Naturally, this specific tip is equally valid for both parfor loops and spmd blocks, since both of them use the pool of workers started by parpool.

Running separate code in parfor loops

The conventional wisdom is that parfor loops (and loops in general) can only run a single code segment over all its iterations. Of course, we can always use conditional constructs (such as if or switch) based on the data. But what if we wanted some workers to run a different code path than the other workers? In spmd blocks we could use a conditional based on the labindex value, but unfortunately labindex is always set to the same value 1 within parfor loops. So how can we let worker A run a different code path than worker B?

An obvious answer is to create a parfor loop having as many elements as there are separate code paths, and use a switch-case mechanism to run the separate paths, as follows:

% Naive implementation example - do NOT use!
parfor idx = 1 : 3
   switch idx
      case 1,  result{1} = fun1(data1, data2);
      case 2,  result{2} = fun2(data3, data4, data5);
      case 3,  result{3} = fun3(data6);
   end
end

There are several problems with this naive implementation. First, it unnecessarily broadcasts all the input data to all workers (more about this issue below). Secondly, it appears clunky and too verbose. A very nice extension of this mechanism, posted by StackOverflow heavyweight Jonas, uses indexed arrays of function handles and input args, thereby solving both problems:

funcList = {@fun1, @fun2, @fun3};
dataList = {data1, data2, data3};  %# or pass file names 
parfor idx = 1 : length(funcList)
    result{idx} = funcList{idx}(dataList{idx});
end

Reduce the amount of broadcast data

It is often easy, too-easy, to convert for loops into parfor loops. In many cases, all we need to do is to add the “par” prefix to the for keyword and we’re done (assuming we have no incompatibly-used variables that should be converted into sliced variables etc.). This transformation was intentionally made simple by MathWorks (which is great!). On the other hand, it also hides a lot under the hood. One of the things that is often overlooked in such simple loop transformations is that a large part of the data used within the loop needs to be copied (broadcast) to each of the workers separately. This means that each of the data items needs to be serialized (i.e., copied in memory), packaged, communicated to and accepted by each of the workers. This can mean a lot of memory, networking bandwidth and time-consuming. It can even mean thrashing to hard-disk in case the number of workers times the amount of transferred data exceeds the available RAM. For example, if we have 10GB available RAM and try to communicate 3GB to 4 workers, we will not have enough RAM and the OS will start swapping to hard-disk. This will kill performance and Matlab will appear “hung” and will need to be hard-killed.

You might think that it would be very difficult to reach the RAM limit, but in fact it can be far too easy when you consider the multiplication by the number of workers, and the fact that each worker uses 1+GB of memory just for its MATLAB process, even before the data, and all this in addition to the parent (client) Matlab process. That’s a lot of GBs flying around…

Moreover, it’s enough for one small part of a Matlab struct or array to be used within the parfor loop for the entire Matlab construct to be broadcast to all workers. For example, a very common use-case is to store program data, both raw and processed, within a simple Matlab struct. Let’s say that we have data.raw and data.processed and within the loop we only need data.processed – the entire data variable (which might include many GBs due to the raw data) is broadcast, although the loop’s code only needs data.processed. In such cases, it makes sense to separate the broadcast data into standalone variables, and only use them within the loop:

data.raw = ...
data.processed = ...
 
% Inefficient variant:
parfor idx = 1 : N
   % do something with data.processed
end
 
% This is better:
processedData = data.processed;
parfor idx = 1 : N
   % do something with processedData
end

Moreover, if you can convert a broadcast variable into a sliced one, this would be even better: in this case each worker will only be communicated its small share (“slice”) of the entire data, rather than a full copy of the entire data.

All this would of course be much simpler if Matlab’s computational engine was multi-threaded, since then PCT could be implemented using lightweight threads rather than heavyweight processes. The memory and communication overheads would then be drastically reduced and performance would improve significantly. Unfortunately, Matlab’s computational engine is [still] single-threaded, preventing this. Hopefully Matlab’s new engine (which debuted in R2015b) will enable true multithreading at some future release. PCT will still need to retain an option of using headless worker processes to run on multiple machines (i.e., distributed/grid/cloud computing), but single-machine parallelization should employ multithreading instead.

Additional speedup tips can be found in my book “Accelerating MATLAB Performance“.

Do you have some other important parfor tips that you found useful? If so, please post them in a comment below.

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/a-few-parfor-tips/feed 5
Handling red Java console errorshttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/handling-red-java-console-errors http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/handling-red-java-console-errors#comments Wed, 29 Jun 2016 17:00:51 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6468
 
Related posts:
  1. Java stack traces in Matlab Matlab does not normally provide information about the Java calls on the stack trace. A simple trick can show us this information....
  2. Java class access pitfalls There are several potential pitfalls when accessing Matlab classes from Matlab. ...
  3. The Java import directive The import function can be used to clarify Java code used in Matlab. ...
  4. Converting Java vectors to Matlab arrays Converting Java vectors to Matlab arrays is pretty simple - this article explains how....
 
]]>
Anyone who has worked with non-trivial Matlab GUIs knows that from time to time we see various red Java stack-trace errors appear in the Matlab console (Command Window). These errors do not appear often when using documented Matlab controls, but they do from time to time. The errors appear significantly more frequently when working with undocumented Java-based hacks that I often show on this blog, and especially when working with complex controls such as uitable or uitree. Such controls have a very large code-base under the hood, and the Matlab code and data sometimes clashes with the asynchronous Java methods that run on a separate thread. Such clashes and race conditions often lead to red Java stack-trace errors that are spewed onto the Matlab console. For example:

Exception in thread "AWT-EventQueue-0" java.lang.NullPointerException
	at com.jidesoft.plaf.basic.BasicCellSpanTableUI.paint(Unknown Source)
	at javax.swing.plaf.ComponentUI.update(Unknown Source)
	at javax.swing.JComponent.paintComponent(Unknown Source)
	at com.jidesoft.grid.CellStyleTable.paintComponent(Unknown Source)
	at javax.swing.JComponent.paint(Unknown Source)
	at javax.swing.JComponent.paintToOffscreen(Unknown Source)
	...

Exception in thread "AWT-EventQueue-0" java.lang.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException: 1 >= 0
	at java.util.Vector.elementAt(Unknown Source)
	at javax.swing.table.DefaultTableColumnModel.getColumn(Unknown Source)
	at com.jidesoft.grid.ContextSensitiveTable.getCellRenderer(Unknown Source)
	at com.jidesoft.grid.CellSpanTable.getCellRenderer(Unknown Source)
	at com.jidesoft.grid.TreeTable.getActualCellRenderer(Unknown Source)
	at com.jidesoft.grid.GroupTable.getCellRenderer(Unknown Source)
	at com.jidesoft.grid.JideTable.b(Unknown Source)
	at com.jidesoft.grid.CellSpanTable.calculateRowHeight(Unknown Source)
	...

In almost all such Java error messages, the error is asynchronous to the Matlab code and does not interrupt it. No error exception is thrown (or can be trapped), and the Matlab code proceeds without being aware that anything is wrong. In fact, in the vast majority of such cases, nothing is visibly wrong – the program somehow overcomes the reported problem and there are no visible negative effects on the GUI. In other words, these error messages are harmless and can almost always be ignored. Still, if we could only stop those annoying endless red stack-trace messages in the Matlab console!

Note that today’s post only discusses untrappable asynchronous Java error messages, not synchronous errors that can be trapped in Matlab via try-catch. These synchronous errors are often due to programmatic errors (e.g., bad method input args or an empty reference handle) and can easily be handled programmatically. On the other hand, the asynchronous errors are non-trappable, so they are much more difficult to isolate and fix.

In many of the cases, the error occurs when the control’s underlying data model is changed by the Matlab code, and some of the controls’s Java methods are not synced with the new model by the time they run. This can be due to internal bugs in the Matlab or Java control’s implementation, or to simple race conditions that occur between the Matlab thread and the Java Event Dispatch Thread (EDT). As noted here, such race conditions can often be solved by introducing a simple delay into the Matlab code:

javaControl.doSomething();
pause(0.05); drawnow;javaControl.doSomethingElse();

In addition, asking Matlab to run the Java component’s methods on the EDT can also help solve race conditions:

javaControl = javaObjectEDT(javaControl);

Unfortunately, sometimes both of these are not enough. In such cases, one of the following ideas might help:

  • Add fprintf(' \b') to your Matlab code: this seemingly innocent hack of displaying a space & immediately erasing it with backspace, appears to force the Java engine to flush its event queue and synchronize things, thereby avoiding the annoying Java console errors. I know it sounds like adding a sprinkle of useless black magic to the code, but it does really work in some cases!
    javaControl.doSomething();
    pause(0.05); drawnow;  % this never hurt anyone!
    fprintf(' \b');javaControl.doSomethingElse();
  • It is also possible to directly access the console text area and remove all the text after a certain point. Note that I strongly discourage messing around with the console text in this manner, since it might cause problems with Matlab’s internals. Still, if you are adventurous enough to try, then here’s an example:
    jCmdWinDoc = com.mathworks.mde.cmdwin.CmdWinDocument.getInstance;
    currentPos = cmdWinDoc.getLength;
     
    javaControl.doSomething();
    pause(0.05); drawnow;  % this never hurt anyone!
    javaControl.doSomethingElse();
     
    pause(0.1);  % let the java error time to display itself in the console
    jCmdWinDoc.remove(currentPos, cmdWinDoc.getLength-currentPos);
  • When all else fails, consider simply clearing the Matlab console using the Matlab clc command a short while after updating the Java control. This will erase the red Java errors, along with everything else in the console, so naturally it cannot be freely used if you use the console to display useful information to the user.

It should be emphasized: not all of these suggested remedies work in all cases; in some cases some of them work, and in other cases others might work. There does not seem to be a general panacea to this issue. The main purpose of the article was to list the possible solutions in a single place, so that users could try them out and select those that work for each specific case.

Do you know of any other (perhaps better) way of avoiding or hiding such asynchronous Java console errors? If so, then please post a comment below.

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/handling-red-java-console-errors/feed 5
MEX ctrl-c interrupthttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/mex-ctrl-c-interrupt http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/mex-ctrl-c-interrupt#comments Wed, 15 Jun 2016 17:00:40 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6454
 
Related posts:
  1. Checking status of warning messages in MEX Undocumented Mex functions can be used to extract the state of Matlab warnings in run-time. ...
  2. Better MEX error messages The default clunky and release-incompatible MEX error messages can be improved using a simple hack. ...
  3. Undocumented feature list A list of undocumented MATLAB features can be retrieved. Here's how... ...
  4. Serializing/deserializing Matlab data Matlab does not provide a documented manner to serialize data into a byte stream, but we can do this with some undocumented functionality. ...
 
]]>
I recently became aware of a very nice hack by Wotao Yin (while at Rice in 2010; currently teaching at UCLA). The core problem is that unlike m-files that can be interrupted in mid-run using ctrl-c, MEX functions cannot be interrupted in the same way. Well, not officially, that is.

Interrupts are very important for long-running user-facing operations. They can even benefit performance by avoiding the need to periodically poll some external state. Interrupts are registered asynchronously, and the program can query the interrupt buffer at its convenience, in special locations of its code, and/or at specific times depending on the required responsiveness.

Yin reported that the libut library that ships with Matlab contain a large set of undocumented functions, including utIsInterruptPending() that can be used to detect ctrl-c interrupt events. The original report of this feature seems to be by Matlab old hand Peter Boettcher back in 2002 (with a Fortran wrapper reported in 2013). The importance of Yin’s post is that he clearly explained the use of this feature, with detailed coding and compilation instructions. Except for Peter’s original report, Yin’s post and the Fortran wrapper, precious few mentions can be found online (oddly enough, yours truly mentioned it in the very same CSSM newsletter post in which I outed this blog back in 2009). Apparently, this feature was supposed to have been made documented in R12.1, but for some reason it was not and people just moved on and forgot about it.

The relevant functions seem to be:

// Most important functions (C):
bool utIsInterruptEnabled(void)
bool utIsInterruptPending(void)
bool utWasInterruptHandled(void)
 
bool utSetInterruptHandled(bool)
bool utSetInterruptEnabled(bool)
bool utSetInterruptPending(bool)
 
// Related functions (C, signature unknown):
? utHandlePendingInterrupt(?)
? utRestoreInterruptEnabled(?)
? utLongjmpIfInterruptPending(?)
 
// utInterruptMode class (C++):
utInterruptMode::utInterruptMode(enum utInterruptMode::Mode)  // constructor
utInterruptMode::~utInterruptMode(void)  // destructor
bool utInterruptMode::isInterruptEnabled(void)
enum utInterruptMode::Mode utInterruptMode::CurrentMode
enum utInterruptMode::Mode utInterruptMode::GetCurrentMode(void)
enum utInterruptMode::Mode utInterruptMode::GetOriginalMode(void)
enum utInterruptMode::Mode utInterruptMode::SetMode(enum utInterruptMode::Mode)
 
// utInterruptState class (C++):
class utInterruptState::AtomicPendingFlags utInterruptState::flags_pending
void utInterruptState::HandlePeekMsgPending(void)
bool utInterruptState::HandlePendingInterrupt(void)
bool utInterruptState::interrupt_handled
bool utInterruptState::IsInterruptPending(void)
bool utInterruptState::IsPauseMsgPending(void)
class utInterruptState & utInterruptState::operator=(class utInterruptState const &)
void utInterruptState::PeekMessageIfPending(void)
bool utInterruptState::SetInterruptHandled(bool)
bool utInterruptState::SetInterruptPending(bool)
bool utInterruptState::SetIqmInterruptPending(bool)
bool utInterruptState::SetPauseMsgPending(bool)
bool utInterruptState::SetPeekMsgPending(bool)
void utInterruptState::ThrowIfInterruptPending(void)
bool utInterruptState::WasInterruptHandled(void)
unsigned int const utInterruptState::FLAG_PENDING_CTRLC
unsigned int const utInterruptState::FLAG_PENDING_INTERRUPT_MASK
unsigned int const utInterruptState::FLAG_PENDING_IQM_INTERRUPT
unsigned int const utInterruptState::FLAG_PENDING_PAUSE
unsigned int const utInterruptState::FLAG_PENDING_PEEKMSG

Of all these functions, we can make do with just utIsInterruptPending, as shown by Yin (complete with compilation instructions):

/* A demo of Ctrl-C detection in mex-file by Wotao Yin. Jan 29, 2010. */
 
#include "mex.h"
 
#if defined (_WIN32)
    #include <windows.h>
#elif defined (__linux__)
    #include <unistd.h>
#endif
 
#ifdef __cplusplus 
    extern "C" bool utIsInterruptPending();
#else
    extern bool utIsInterruptPending();
#endif
 
void mexFunction(int nlhs, mxArray *plhs[], int nrhs, const mxArray *prhs[]) {
    int count = 0;    
    while(1) {
        #if defined(_WIN32)
            Sleep(1000);        /* Sleep one second */
        #elif defined(__linux__)
            usleep(1000*1000);  /* Sleep one second */
        #endif
 
        mexPrintf("Count = %d\n", count++);  /* print count and increase it by 1 */
        mexEvalString("drawnow;");           /* flush screen output */
 
        if (utIsInterruptPending()) {        /* check for a Ctrl-C event */
            mexPrintf("Ctrl-C Detected. END\n\n");
            return;
        }
        if (count == 10) {
            mexPrintf("Count Reached 10. END\n\n");
            return;
        }
    }
}

An elaboration of this idea was created by Ramon Casero (Oxford) for the Gerardus project. Ramon wrapped Yin’s code in C/C++ #define to create an easy-to-use pre-processor function ctrlcCheckPoint(fileName,lineNumber):

...
ctrlcCheckPoint(__FILE__, __LINE__);  // exit if user pressed Ctrl+C
...

Here’s the code for the preprocessor header file (GerardusCommon.h) that #defines ctrlcCheckPoint() (naturally, the __FILE__ and __LINE__ parts could also be made part of the #define, for even simpler usage):

 /*
  * Author: Ramon Casero <rcasero@gmail.com>
  * Copyright © 2011-2013 University of Oxford
  * Version: 0.10.2
  *
  * University of Oxford means the Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of
  * the University of Oxford, having an administrative office at
  * Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. 
  *
  * This file is part of Gerardus.
  *
  * This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
  * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
  * the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
  * (at your option) any later version.
  *
  * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
  * GNU General Public License for more details. The offer of this
  * program under the terms of the License is subject to the License
  * being interpreted in accordance with English Law and subject to any
  * action against the University of Oxford being under the jurisdiction
  * of the English Courts.
  *
  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
  * along with this program.  If not, see
  * <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
  */
 
#ifndef GERARDUSCOMMON_H
#define GERARDUSCOMMON_H
 
/* mex headers */
#include <mex.h>
 
/* C++ headers */
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <iterator>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
 
/* ITK headers */
#include "itkOffset.h"
 
/*
 * utIsInterruptPending(): "undocumented MATLAB API implemented in
 * libut.so, libut.dll, and included in the import library
 * libut.lib. To use utIsInterruptPending in a mex-file, one must
 * manually declare bool utIsInterruptPending() because this function
 * is not included in any header files shipped with MATLAB. Since
 * libut.lib, by default, is not linked by mex, one must explicitly
 * tell mex to use libut.lib." -- Wotao Yin, 
 * http://www.caam.rice.edu/~wy1/links/mex_ctrl_c_trick/
 *
 */
#ifdef __cplusplus 
    extern "C" bool utIsInterruptPending();
#else
    extern bool utIsInterruptPending();
#endif
 
/*
 * ctrlcCheckPoint(): function to check whether the user has pressed
 * Ctrl+C, and if so, terminate execution returning an error message
 * with a hyperlink to the offending function's help, and a hyperlink
 * to the line in the source code file this function was called from
 *
 * It is implemented as a C++ macro to check for the CTRL+C flag, and
 * a call to function ctrlcErrMsgTxt() inside, to throw the error. The
 * reason is that if ctrlcCheckPoint() were a function instead of a
 * macro, this would introduce a function call at every iteration of
 * the loop, which is very expensive. But then we don't want to put
 * the whole error message part inside a macro, it's bug-prone and bad
 * programming practice. And once the CTRL+C has been detected,
 * whether the error message is generated a bit faster or not is not
 * important.
 *
 * In practice, to use this function put a call like this e.g. inside
 * loops that may take for a very long time:
 *
 *    // exit if user pressed Ctrl+C
 *    ctrlcCheckPoint(__FILE__, __LINE__);
 *
 * sourceFile: full path and name of the C++ file that calls this
 *             function. This should usually be the preprocessor
 *             directive __FILE__
 *
 * lineNumber: line number where this function is called from. This
 *             should usually be the preprocessor directive __LINE__
 *
 */
inline
void ctrlcErrMsgTxt(std::string sourceFile, int lineNumber) {
 
  // run from here the following code in the Matlab side:
  //
  // >> path = mfilename('fullpath')
  //
  // this provides the full path and function name of the function
  // that called ctrlcCheckPoint()
  int nlhs = 1; // number of output arguments we expect
  mxArray *plhs[1]; // to store the output argument
  int nrhs = 1; // number of input arguments we are going to pass
  mxArray *prhs[1]; // to store the input argument we are going to pass
  prhs[0] = mxCreateString("fullpath"); // input argument to pass
  if (mexCallMATLAB(nlhs, plhs, nrhs, prhs, "mfilename")) { // run mfilename('fullpath')
    mexErrMsgTxt("ctrlcCheckPoint(): mfilename('fullpath') returned error");
  }
  if (plhs == NULL) {
    mexErrMsgTxt("ctrlcCheckPoint(): mfilename('fullpath') returned NULL array of outputs");
  }
  if (plhs[0] == NULL) {
    mexErrMsgTxt("ctrlcCheckPoint(): mfilename('fullpath') returned NULL output instead of valid path");
  }
 
  // get full path to current function, including function's name
  // (without the file extension)
  char *pathAndName = mxArrayToString(plhs[0]);
  if (pathAndName == NULL) {
    mexErrMsgTxt("ctrlcCheckPoint(): mfilename('fullpath') output cannot be converted to string");
  }
 
  // for some reason, using mexErrMsgTxt() to give this output
  // doesn't work. Instead, we have to give the output to the
  // standar error, and then call mexErrMsgTxt() to terminate
  // execution of the program
  std::cerr << "Operation terminated by user during "
	    << "<a href=\"matlab:helpUtils.errorDocCallback('"
	    << mexFunctionName()
	    << "', '" << pathAndName << ".m', " << lineNumber << ")\">"
	    << mexFunctionName()
	    << "</a> (<a href=\"matlab:opentoline('"
	    << sourceFile
	    << "'," << lineNumber << ",0)\">line " << lineNumber
	    << "</a>)"
	    << std::endl;
  mexErrMsgTxt("");
}
 
#define ctrlcCheckPoint(sourceFile, lineNumber)		\
  if (utIsInterruptPending()) {				\
    ctrlcErrMsgTxt(sourceFile, lineNumber);		\
  }

This feature has remained as-is since at least 2002 (when Peter first reported it), and apparently works to this day. Why then did I categorize this as “High risk for breaking in a future Matlab versions”? The reason is that internal undocumented MEX functions are prone to break in new Matlab releases (example). Hopefully my report today will prompt MathWorks to make this feature documented, rather than to remove it from a future release :-)

By the way, if anyone knows any use for the other interrupt-related functions in libut that I listed above, and/or the missing signatures, please leave a note below and I will update here accordingly.

Addendum July 2, 2016: Pavel Holoborodko just posted an asynchronous version of this mechanism, which is an improvement of the synchronous code above. Pavel uses a separate Windows thread to check the Ctrl-C interrupt state. Readers can extend this idea to use threads for other asynchronous (multi-threaded) computations or I/O. In chapter 7 of my book “Accelerating MATLAB Performance” I explain how we can use Posix threads (pthreads) or OpenMP threads for similar multithreading in MEX (unlike Windows threads, pthreads and OpenMP are cross platform). Users can also use other multithreading solutions, such as the open-source Boost library (bundled with Matlab) or Intel’s commercial TBB.

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/mex-ctrl-c-interrupt/feed 5
Figure window customizationshttp://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/figure-window-customizations http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/figure-window-customizations#respond Wed, 01 Jun 2016 08:00:11 +0000 http://undocumentedmatlab.com/?p=6439
 
Related posts:
  1. Minimize/maximize figure window Matlab figure windows can easily be maximized, minimized and restored using a bit of undocumented magic powder...
  2. Enable/disable entire figure window Disabling/enabling an entire figure window is impossible with pure Matlab, but is very simple using the underlying Java. This article explains how....
  3. Transparent Matlab figure window Matlab figure windows can be made fully or partially transparent/translucent or blurred - this article explains how...
  4. Blurred Matlab figure window Matlab figure windows can be blurred using a semi-transparent overlaid window - this article explains how...
 
]]>
A friend recently asked me, in light of my guesstimate that Java-based Matlab figures will be replaced by web-based figures sometime around 2018-2020, whether there are any “killer features” that make it worthwhile to use undocumented Java-based tricks today, despite the fact that they will probably break in 2-5 years. In my opinion, there are many such features; today I will focus on just a subset of them – those features that relate to the entire figure window.

Over the years I wrote many articles here about figure-level customizations, as well as an entire chapter in my Matlab-Java programming book. So today’s post will be a high-level overview, and users who are interested in any specific topic can visit the referenced links for the implementation details.

An undecorated Matlab figure window - one of many possible figure-level customizations
An undecorated Matlab figure window – one of many possible figure-level customizations

JavaFrame

JavaFrame is an undocumented hidden property of the figure handle that provides access to the underlying Java window (JFrame) peer object’s reference. Since R2008a, a warning is issued whenever we retrieve this property:

>> jFrame = get(gcf,'JavaFrame');
Warning: figure JavaFrame property will be obsoleted in a future release.
For more information see the JavaFrame resource on the MathWorks web site.
(Type "warning off MATLAB:HandleGraphics:ObsoletedProperty:JavaFrame" to suppress this warning.) 

Until HG2 (R2014b+) we could suppress the warning by simply wrapping the figure handle within a handle() call, as explained here. Since R2014b we need to use the warning function to do this:

warning('off', 'MATLAB:HandleGraphics:ObsoletedProperty:JavaFrame');

We can do several things directly with the JavaFrame‘s properties and methods, including:

  • Maximize/minimize/restore the window, via the properties Maximized/Minimized (which accept and return a boolean (logical) value), or the corresponding methods jFrame.isMaximized(), isMinimized(), setMaximized(flag), setMinimized(flag). details
  • Modify the container to which the figure will be docked. By default this is the “Figures” container, but this can be changed to any user-specified container, or even to the “Editor”, using the GroupName property or its associated methods. See the related setFigDockGroup utility that I posted on the Matlab File exchange.
  • Remove the top separator line between the toolbar and the content-pane, to blend them together, via the jFrame.showTopSeparator(flag) method.
  • Retrieve a direct Java reference to the Matlab Desktop and the figure’s internal containers via the Desktop and FigurePanelContainer properties, respectively (we can also get those references by other means).
  • Retrieve a direct Java reference to the containing JFrame (Java window), as discussed below
  • A few other features that I will not discuss here

MathWorks have set up a dedicated webpage where you can specify how you are using JavaFrame and why it is important for you: http://www.mathworks.com/javaframe. I encourage you to use this webpage to tell MathWorks which features are important for you. This will help them to decide which functionality should be added to the new web-based figures.

JFrame window

The JavaFrame handle enables direct retrieval of the containing Java JFrame (window) reference, using several alternatives. Here are two of these alternatives (there are others):

% Alternative #1
>> jWindow = jFrame.getFigurePanelContainer.getTopLevelAncestor
jWindow = 
com.mathworks.hg.peer.FigureFrameProxy$FigureFrame[fClientProxyFrame,72,62,576x507,...]
 
% Alternative #2
try
    jClient = jFrame.fFigureClient;  % This works up to R2011a
catch
    try
        jClient = jFrame.fHG1Client;  % This works from R2008b-R2014a
    catch
        jClient = jFrame.fHG2Client;  % This works from R2014b and up
    end
end
jWindow = jClient.getWindow;

Customized menu items Customized menu items
Integrated figure status bar

Customized menu items (top) and figure status bar (bottom)

With the retrieved jWindow reference, we can do several additional interesting things:

  • Enable/disable the entire figure in a single go (details)
  • Remove/restore the window frame (borders and title bar), otherwise known as an “undecorated window” (details)
  • Set the figure window to be “Always-On-Top”, i.e. not occluded by any other window, via the AlwaysOnTop property, or the corresponding jWindow.isAlwaysOnTop(), setAlwaysOnTop(flag) methods.
  • Make the figure window fully or partially transparent (details). Note: this fails on R2013b/Java7 and higher due to a change in the way that transparency works in Java 7 compared to earlier releases; in other words blame Oracle’s Java, not MathWorks’ Matlab….
  • Blur/restore the figure window (details). This too works only up to R2013a.
  • Detect and handle window-level focus gain/loss events (details), as well as window-level mouse events (enter/exit/hover etc. – details).
  • Customize the figure’s menu bar – dynamic behavior, tooltips, highlights, keyboard shortcuts/accelerators, font colors/styles, callbacks, icons etc. (details1, details2)
  • Control figure docking in compiled (deployed) applications (details1, details2)
  • Display an integral figure status-bar with text and GUI controls (details1, details2).
  • A few other features that I will not discuss here

As you can see, there are numerous very interesting customizations that can be done to Matlab figures which rely on the undocumented implementation. Here are a couple of usage examples that you can easily adapt (follow the links above for additional details and usage examples):

jWindow.setEnabled(false);     % disable entire figure [true/false]
jWindow.setMinimized(true);    % minimize window [true/false]
jWindow.setMaximized(true);    % maximize window [true/false]
jWindow.setAlwaysOnTop(true);  % set to be always on top [true/false]
 
% Set a Matlab callback function to a window focus-gain event
hjWindow = handle(jWindow, 'CallbackProperties');
hjWindow.FocusGainedCallback = @myCallbackFunc;

In addition to the Java-based features above, some functionalities can also be achieved via direct OS manipulations, for example using Jan Simon’s great WindowAPI utility (Windows-only), although I typically prefer using the Java approach since it is cross-platform compatible.

Using all these features is super-easy, so there is not really a question of code complexity or technical risk – the main question is whether to accept the risk that the associated code will stop working when Matlab figures will eventually become web-based.

So is it worth the risk?

This is an excellent question. I contend that the answer depends on the specific use-case. In one project you may decide that it is indeed worth-while to use these undocumented features today, whereas in another GUI you may decide that it is not.

It might make sense to use the features above in any of the following circumstances:

  • If you need any of the features in your Matlab GUI today. In this case, you really have no alternative other than to use these features, since there is no documented way to achieve the required functionality.
  • If you do not plan to upgrade your Matlab release soon, or at least after the Java-based figures are discontinued in a few years. The commercial Matlab license is perpetual, enabling users to enjoy these features for as long as they continue using this Matlab release.
  • If you are compiling your Matlab program using the Matlab Compiler or Coder toolboxes. In such cases, the executable will remain static, until such time (if ever) that you decide to recompile it using a newer Matlab release. Users of the compiled code could continue to use the compiled undocumented features well into the future, for as long as their computers keep running. In such cases, we are not concerned with release compatibility issues.
  • If you accept the risk that some recoding may be necessary in the future, or that some functionality will degrade, for the added benefit that they provide your GUIs today.
  • If you are willing to code without MathWorks’ official support and endorsement, and accept the fact that they will not fix any internal bugs that you may discover which is related to these features.
  • If you wish to present a professional-grade GUI today, and worry about potential incompatibilities only if and when they eventually arrive, sometime in the future.

Here’s another twist to consider: do not take it for granted that when web-based uifigures replace Java-based figures all the documented functionality will work as-is on the new uifigures just as they have on the old figures. In fact, I personally believe that we will need to extensively modify our GUI code to make it compatible with the new uifigures. In other words, avoiding the undocumented hacks above will probably not save us from the need to recode (or at least adapt) our GUI, it will just reduce the necessary work somewhat. We encountered a similar situation with the graphics hacks that I exposed over the years: many people avoided them in the fear that they might someday break; then when R2014b came and HG2 graphics replaced HG1, it turned out that many of these supposedly risky hacks continued working in HG2 (examples: LooseInset, YLimInclude) whereas quite a bit of standard fully-documented Matlab functionality was broken and required some recoding. I believe that the lessons from the HG2 migration were well studied and assimilated by MathWorks, but realistically speaking we should not expect a 100% full-proof transition to uifigures.

Still, accepting the risk does not mean that we should bury our head in the sand. Whenever using any undocumented feature in your code, I strongly suggest to use defensive coding practices, such as wrapping your code within try-catch blocks. This way, even if the feature is removed in R2020a (or whenever), the program will still run, albeit with somewhat diminished functionality, or in other words, graceful degradation. For example:

try
    jFrame = get(hFig, 'JavaFrame');
    jFrame.setMaximized(true);
catch
    oldUnits = get(hFig, 'Units');
    set(hFig, 'Units','norm', 'Pos',[0,0,1,1]);
    set(hFig, 'Units',oldUnits);
end

Once again, I urge you to visit http://www.mathworks.com/javaframe and tell MathWorks which of the above features are important for you. The more users tell MathWorks that they depend on a specific feature, the more would MathWorks be likely to invest R&D efforts in enabling it in the future web-based figures.

]]>
http://undocumentedmatlab.com/blog/figure-window-customizations/feed 0